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The archbishop said to them, "In many things ye are contrary to our customs and so to [those] of all God's churches; and yet if ye will be obedient to me in these three things,that first ye celebrate Easter at the right tide; that ye fulfil the ministry of baptism, through which we are born as God's children, after the manner of the holy Roman and apostolic church; and that, thirdly, ye preach the word of the Lord to the English people together with us,—we will patiently bear with all other things which ye do that are contrary to our customs." They said that they would do none of these things, nor would have him for an archbishop: they said among themselves, "If he would not now rise for us, much more, if we shall be subjected to him, will he contemn us for naught." It is said that the man of God, St. Augustine, in a threatening manner foretold, "if they would not receive peace with men of God, that they should receive unpeace and war from their foes; and, if they would not preach among the English race the word of life, they should through their hands suffer the vengeance of death."

5. And through everything, as the man of God had foretold, by the righteous doom of God it came to pass; and very soon after this Ethelfrith, king of the English, of whom we spoke before, collected a great army, and led it to Legcaster, and there fought against the Britons, and made the greatest slaughter of the faithless people. Whilst he was beginning the battle, King Ethelfrith saw their priests and bishops and monks standing aloof in a safer place, that they should pray and make intercession to God for their warriors: he inquired and asked what that host was, and what they were doing there. When he understood the cause of their coming, then said he, "So! I wot if they cry to their God against us; though they bear not a weapon, they fight against us, for they pursue us with their hostile prayers and curses." He then straightway ordered to turn upon them first, and slay them. Men say that there were twelve hundred of this host, and fifty of them escaped by flight; and he so then destroyed and blotted out the other host of the sinful nation, not without great waning of his [own] host; and so was fulfilled the prophecy of the holy Bishop Augustine, that they should for their trowlessness suffer the vengeance of temporal perdition, because they despised the skilful counsel of their eternal salvation.

CHAPTER III.

That Augustine hallowed Mellitus and Justus to bishops, and of his decease.

1. After these things Augustine, bishop [of Britain], hallowed two bishops: the one was named Mellitus, the other Justus. Mellitus sent to preach divin lore to the EastSaxons, who are shed off from Kentland by the river Thames, and joined to the east sea. Their chief city is called Lundencaster (now London), standing on the bank of the foresaid. river; and it is the market-place of land and sea comers. The king in the nation at that time was Seabright (or Sabert), Ethelbert's sister-son, and his vassal. Then he and the nation of the East-Saxons received the word of truth and the faith of Christ through Mellitus, the bishop's lore. Then King Ethelbert ordered to build a church in London, and to hallow it to St. Paul the apostle, that he and his after-followers might have their bishop-seat in that place. in that place. Justus he hallowed as bishop in Kent itself at Rochester, which is four and twenty miles right west from Canterbury, in which city likewise King Ethelbert ordered to build a church, and to hallow it to St. Andrew the apostle; and to each of these bishops the king gave his gifts and bookland and possessions for them to brook with their fellows.

2. After these things, then, Father Augustine, beloved of God, departed [this life], and his body was buried without [doors], nigh the church of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, which we mentioned before, because it was not then yet fully built nor hallowed. As soon as it was hallowed, then his body was put into it, and becomingly buried in the north porch of the church, in which likewise the bodies of all the after-following archbishops are buried but two; that is, Theodorus and Berhtwald, whose bodies are laid in the church itself, because no more might [be so] in the foresaid porch. Well-nigh in the middle of the church is an altar* set and hallowed in name of St. Gregory, on which every Saturday their memory and decease are celebrated with mass-song by the mass-priest of that place. On St. Augustine's tomb is written an inscription of this sort: Here resteth Sir † Augustine, the first archbishop of Canterbury, who was formerly sent hither by the blessed Greg

*Lit., holy table, wigbed, Anglo-Saxon.

"Sir" in Eng. ("Schir," Scot.) equal to Dominus, Latin, was five or six centuries ago prefixed to the name of every ordained priest.

ory, bishop of the Roman city; and was upheld by God with working of wonders. King Ethelbert and his people he led from the worship of idols to the faith of Christ, and, having fulfilled the days of his ministry in peace, departed on the 26th day of May in the same king's reign.

St. Augustine was the first archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated at Rome under the famous Gregory, by whom he was sent to Britain with forty monks of the Benedictine order, to carry out the project of converting the English to Christianity. England was not a land where Christianity was unheard of. Bertha, the wife of Ethelbert, king of Kent, was a Christian, daughter of Charibert, king of Paris, and had brought her chaplain with her, using for Christian services the ruined church of St. Martin, outside Canterbury, which survived from Roman times. Augustine and his monks, setting out reluctantly, landed on the isle of Thanet in the year 596. The history of what followed, to the death of Augustine, is given in the chapters from the Venerable Bede's "Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation," printed in the present leaflet. The chapters immediately preceding the story of Augustine, giving an account of the coming of the Angles and Saxons, are printed, as showing the conditions which Augustine found in England.

The "Ecclesiastical History" is the chief monument of the labors of the Venerable Bede, and gives us the best of our knowledge of the history of England until 731, four years before his death. Bede, "the father of English history," was the most learned and famous English scholar of his age; and the number and range of his writings were very great. The monastery at Jarrow, where he taught, and whither hundreds of monks repaired to study, spread the fame of English scholarship throughout Europe. His history shows marvellous industry, manifest truthfulness, and rare literary charm. As King Alfred translated Orosius for his people as the best available book in universal history, so he translated Bede as the best work on their own English history. There are controversies among the scholars as to Alfred's exact personal responsibility for the translation, as there are concerning other works traditionally attributed to him. His version, literally translated into modern English by Thomson, from which the present leaflet is taken, occupies about 200 pages in the Jubilee edition of Alfred's works. There are other English translations by Stapleton, Stevens, Hurst, Giles, and Gidley.

For further information, see the articles on Alfred, by Edward A. Freeman; Augustine, by Bishop Creighton; and Bede, by Rev. William Hunt, in the Dictionary of National Biography. Old South leaflet No. 112 contains King Alfred's Description of Europe (from the Orosius), with fuller historical and bibliographical notes concerning Alfred. The Jubilee edition of King Altred's works, in two large volumes, was published a few years after the celebration in 1849 of the millennial of his birth, and is very complete. There are lives of Alfred by Pauli, Hughes, Giles, Macfadyen and others.

PUBLISHED BY

THE DIRECTORS OF THE OLD SOUTH WORK, Old South Meeting-house, Boston, Mass.

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CONVENTION FOR THE PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF INTER

NATIONAL DIFFERENCES, 1899.

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; His Majesty the Emperor of China; His Majesty the King of Denmark; His Majesty the King of Spain, and in his name Her Majesty the Queen-Regent of the Kingdom; the President of the United States of America; the President of the United States of Mexico; the President of the French Republic; Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the King of the Hellenes; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau; His Highness the Prince of Montenegro; Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands; His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia; His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves; His Majesty the King of Roumania; His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias; His Majesty the King of Servia; His Majesty the King of Siam; His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway; The Swiss Federal Council; His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans; and His Royal Highness the Prince of Bulgaria.

Animated by a strong desire to concert for the maintenance of the general peace;

Resolved to second by their best efforts the friendly settlement of international disputes;

Recognizing the solidarity which unites the members of the society of civilized nations;

Desirous of extending the empire of law, and of strengthening the appreciation of international justice;

Convinced that the permanent institution of a Court of Arbitration, accessible to all, in the midst of the independent Powers, will contribute effectively to this result;

Having regard to the advantages attending the general and regular organization of arbitral procedure;

Sharing the opinion of the august Initiator of the International Peace Conference that it is expedient to solemnly establish, by an international Agreement, the principles of equity and right on which repose the security of States and the welfare of peoples;

Being desirous of concluding a Convention to this effect, have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, to wit:

(Names.)

Who, after communication of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions : —

TITLE I. On the Maintenance of General Peace.

ARTICLE I. With a view to obviating, as far as possible, recourse to force in the relations between States, the Signatory Powers agree to use their best efforts to insure the pacific settlement of international differences.

TITLE II.— On Good Offices and Mediation.

ARTICLE II. In case of serious disagreement or conflict, before an appeal to arms, the Signatory Powers agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly Powers.

ARTICLE III. Independently of this recourse, the Signatory Powers consider it useful that one or more Powers, strangers to the dispute, should, on their own initiative, and as far as circumstances will allow, offer their good offices or mediation to the States at variance.

The right to offer good offices or mediation belongs to Powers who are strangers to the dispute, even during the course of hostilities.

The exercise of this right shall never be regarded by one or the other of the parties to the contest as an unfriendly act.

ARTICLE IV. The part of the mediator consists in recon

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