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the war.

abolition of slavery. The loyal members from the border states became alarmed at this, and evinced great uneasiness. Western Virginia, having formed a provisional government, with Pierpont as governor, sent members of Congress to Washington. Owen Lovejoy of Illinois, having offered a resolution to repeal the fugitive slave law, these were instructed by the Legislature in session at Wheeling, the improvised Capital, to vote against it, while at the same time they were directed to vote for money and men to carry on

The Senate seemed to have a more correct view of the magnitude of the struggle on which we had entered, and passed a bill authorizing the employment of five hundred thousand volunteers, and voting for an appropriation of half a million of dollars. The southern Congress, thinking the north was playing simply a game of brag, responded with a similar call for men and money. Thus, whether the movers in the matter comprehended it or not, the war was assuming proportions so vast that the mind shrunk aghast at the contemplation. Acts were also passed sanctioning the blockade proclaimed by the President, and providing for the collection of the revenues of the seceding states. In the mean time, news having reached the country that the privateer Sumter was burning our ships on the high seas, a bill was passed authorizing the Secretary of the Navy to purchase or contract for such vessels, and to make such increase in the nava! force, as he might deem necessary to suppress privateering, and enforce the blockade, and appropriated $3,000,000 for the purpose. Having done what it thought its duty in the present emergency, it was anxious to see the army begin its work. Scott, whose far reaching sagacity saw that the pub. lic expectation of a great and decisive battle which should end the rebellion was doomed to disappointment, and that an immediate advance on the enemy even if victorious could not be followed up to any decisive result, scarcely knew what

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course to adopt. In the first place, the troops assembled before Washington were mostly enlisted for three months, and if they were disbanded without being allowed to strike a blow the public would be disheartened, and future enlistments might be rendered difficult. Besides the public expected something of this vast army—it could not see why, if the war was ever to begin, it should not commence at once while the Capital was threatened. Our troops were certainly as brave, numerous, and better armed than the enemy. It could not see the vast difference between raw and unskilled troops moving to attack a foe in a strong position of his own choosing, and one standing on the defensive behind its intrenchments. Congress was pressed by politicians, the President and Cabinet by Congress, and Scott by both, till finally a forward movement was determined upon. But difficulties, which none but a military commander could see, lay in the way. Regiments already formed and equipped could with our railroad facilities be transferred with comparative ease to the Capital, but provisions, the means of transportation, and all the appliances and accessories necessary to the movement of a great army, were not so easily improvised. Still after full deliberation it was resolved to force a battle. The


at Manassas was supposed to be in immense force, yet no one for a moment dreamed of a defeat.

Beauregard commanded at this point, while J. E. Johnston, at the head of some thirty thousand men, was in the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry. General Patterson, who had commanded a division of volunteers in the Mexican war, was assigned to the troops which had been concentrating at Hagerstown and Williamsport, to operate against him, and on the second of July crossed the Potomac driving the rebels before hịm. In a skirmish near Haynesville, the army had behaved well, and much was expected of him. He was, however, bordering on his three-score-and-ten, and not being distin

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guished in his best days for energy, could not be expected in his old age to exhibit much of this quality, só necessary to the vigorous prosecution of a campaign. In the approaching advance of the army he was charged with the responsible duty of taking care of Johnston—to hold him where he was, and thus prevent him from reinforcing Beauregard, or if he attempted to retreat, to compel a battle.

To Colonel McDowell, of the regular army, who had the reputation of being a brave and skillful officer, was assigned the command of the division which was to move against Beauregard. He had been consulted as to the number of troops he should need, and allowed all that he asked for. In fixing the force, however, he expressly stated that he did not embrace in his calculation the army under Johnston. He promised success only on the condition that the government should take care of him.

Everything being in readiness, the army over forty thousand strong, took up its march on the 17th of July in five-divisions—the first commanded by General Tyler of the Connecticut militia, the second by Colonel Hunter, the third by Colonel Heintzelman of the regular army, the fourth by General Runyon, and the fifth by Colonel Miles. The news of this imposing array having taken up its line of march for Manassas, as it traveled over the electric wires, created the most 'unbounded enthusiasm throughout the north. No gloomy forebodings dashed the general joy, no doubts clouded the belief that traitors were about to receive their just punishment. Visitors at Washington, and members of Congress, and members of the press, besieged the administration for permission to accompany the army; and men on horseback, in carriages, and in four-horse omnibuses brought up

the rear, or obstructed the march of the victorious troops. They went forth as to a great Derby day. To the spectator it looked like a splendid military picnic about to come off



among the wooded fields of Virginia. In gay spirits, the air resounding with the stirring airs of the regimental bands, the July sun flashing on the long lines of gleaming bayonets, the army moved rapidly over the country. Driving the enemy's pickets before it, the main column entered Fairfax, and encamped for the night. The troops let loose from their long confinement plundered everything they could lay their hands on, and the spirit of frolic ran riot in the camp.

As General Tyler approached Centreville, he was directed by McDowell to establish himself there, and carefully observe all the approaches to it. Instead of doing this, he pushed on to Bull Rur, and observing the enemy's batteries on the farther bank opened fire on them. An extraordinary artillery duel followed which lasted for some time with but little effect on either side, and which resulted in Tyler's withdrawing his batteries. This action, brought on so suddenly, was wholly unexpected to McDowell, and done without his orders, and hence was the cause of much comment and


discussion afterwards. Only one thing need be said of it, however; the enemy's line of battle lay along this stream, and no action was proper till the advancing army was in position, and a concerted attack could be made. No reconnoisance had been made, and such a movement ran the hazard of bringing on a general engagement while the bulk of the army was on the march, and wholly ignorant of what was going on.

The next day, Friday, a wide reconnoisance was made of the enemy's position with a view to turning his flanks; for a straightforward movement on his strongly posted batteries was too desperate an undertaking to be thought of except everything else should fail. From Centreville three roads branch off like the three spokes of a wheel toward Bull Run, and McDowell determined to make the attack in three col.

Bull Run is a sluggish stream running from north-west to south-east, and crossed by numerous fords. Behind it the




ground rises into elevations, while the shores are heavily wooded. Along these the

Along these the enemy had posted himself-his line extending for nearly eight miles. To the east on our left was Blackburn ford, where Tyler's artillery action took place. The strength of the enemy there was found too great. to permit a movement on that flank, and so McDowell determined to turn his extreme left by a ford which was so far to the west that the enemy, not dreaming of an attack in that quarter, had left it undefended. This task was assigned to Hunter's division. Heintzelman was to move against the strongly defended ford next below this, and the moment Hunter's division came down on the other side of the stream, driving the enemy before him, cross over and join him, when they together would keep down the stream. Tyler was to move along the Warrenton road that crossed Bull Run just west of Centreville, and occupy the enemy at Stone bridge, while this flank movement was being carried out. McDowell, fearing that while this was going on, the enemy at Blackburn ford, on his extreme left, might attempt a similar movement on him, concentrated a heavy force there to keep him in check, and make him think that the main attack was to be made in that direction. The fifth division, under Miles, was stationed on the Centreville ridge as the reserve. seemed an admirable one, and gave every promise of success.

The plan


Saturday at four o'clock in the morning, the order to march was given. It was a warm moonlight night, and the army presented a magnificent spectacle as it began to move off through the green fields and overhanging woods. The-fires by which the host had cooked its midnight meal—the last to many a poor soldier--dotted the hill-sides and hazy valleys as far as the eye could reach. Long lines of steel, flashing in the moonbeams-extended rows of army wagons with their

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