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have such universal dominion. Perfect health and unbounded elasticity of life will not be a safe endowment except in heaven.
Yet even with those weary and heavy-laden with sickness and sorrow, the positive patience and self-denial and gentle graces to which they are called, and which constitute their Christian life, activity in the form of endurance, are more to be desired than those sad moods of mind in which they can not help but long for sunset. To them, too, in their peculiar way, there is a supreme dignity in a joyful, earnest, working life in God.
Secondly. But while we all should love to live in the active performance of duty, we are never to forget the shadow, or to fail to prepare for death. There is such a thing as a Christian loving this life too well. The instinct by which he clings to it, may not be properly subdued unto God. Or the divine Providence may have scattered so many blessings upon his home, that he is in dan ger of "laying up his treasures upon earth.” There is much necessity for the children of God to seek by positive effort to break the cords which bind them too closely here, and to replace them with those golden chains, whose fastenings are in the throne of God and the Lamb. One of the first petitions to the throne of God, which impressed my childish heart, was heard from the lips of one of our most distinguished ministers, and has been heard from his lips a thousand times since, that God would wean us from the world. This is a prayer which should be often offered, and with efforts after the object, proportioned to its importance. Indeed, there should always be a struggle for that longing after God, which, while it is consistent with a love of Christian action upon earth, is a continual preparation for the coming on of night. The Apostle Paul occupied the right position upon this question: "To depart was far better, and be greatly desired it;" yet “to live was Christ:" and if the Master still had work for him to do; he would choose on the whole, for the sake of the dying world, to remain at his post. Oh! this is a great Christian attain. ment reached by few, and yet worthy of our highest strivings! It is well to aim at a lofty mark. It is not, as we sometimes ex. press it, to be willing to live, and to be willing to die, as God sees best; but it is to love to live or to love to die just as God sees best. And yet, if with most of our brethren, we fall short of this very high standard, we ought as our very lowest duty, to keep our minds so submissive to God, as to bow before his will.
Thirdly. The sunset will bring blessings to the weary saint. The shadow which he so earnestly desires, lies just before the celestial city. Yet so strangely worn and over-worked is he, that it is not for heaven he longs, so much as for the shadow itself - the end of his sufferings, the devouring grave. The kind Father, pitying his frame, and knowing his infirmities, permits him thus to long for death, and keeps in reserve for him beyond, the heavenly glories. Poor, sorrowing disciple! the Saviour keeps thy crown in readiness for thee. Thy sun, which through all thy afflicted life has seemed to be enveloped in thick darkness, shall go down without a cloud, even setting in a refulgent sea of glory. Oh! didst thou know it all, thou mightest well long and pray
THE CODEX SINAITICUS.* The name of Tischendorf does not now appear for the first time in connection with Biblical literature. The course of authorship of this distinguished savant began as long ago as 1838, when an edition of the Greek New Testament proclaimed his qualifications for the task of textual criticism, and decided his career. The patronage of his own sovereign furnished him with the means of visiting Paris for the purpose of exploring its manuscript treasures, especially its Codec Ephremi Rescriptus, one of the most valuable palimpsests in the world. Since then Great Britain, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Malta, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Constantinople, have been traversed in the prosecution of his researches, and have borne witness to his combined learning and zeal. To sum up his publications were to fill a paragraph; suffice it to say, that his “Codex Friderico-Augustanus,” lis“Mon. umenta Sacra Inedita," his “Evangelium Palatinum," his “Codex Amiatinus,” his “Codex Claromontanus,” his “Palimpsest Frag. ments,” his “ Apocryphal Acts,” “ Apocryphal Gospels," " Apoc. ryphal Apocalypses, and his successive editions of the Greek New Testament, have established his reputation as the largest contributor to textual criticism of his day, and made the name of Tischendorf celebrated far beyond the bounds of his quiet university.
In the volume before us t we have record made of one of his latest journeys, and of certainly his greatest acquisition-a very ancient manuscript, containing the most important parts of the Old Testament in Greek, and the entire New Testament, without omission or erasure, ne minimâ quidem lacuna deformalum. Any manuscript of the Holy Scriptures, in ang language, with a credible date reaching above the tenth century, would be considered a valuable addition to our stores of critical matter for settling the sacred text, for even these are comparatively few; but to meet with one whose date is assigned, unhesitatingly, by its finder to the earlier half of the fourth century, was enough to turn Tischendorf crazy with joy. His record of his emotions at the moment of discovery is quiet, but the exultation of his feelings could not be disguised : “Quae res quantam in admirationem me conjecerit, dissimulare nequibam.”
* This article is of such unusual interest and value to ministers and intelligent Christians, that we have thought worth while to print it on these pages, for those who may not otherwise see it.-ED. OF N. PREACHER.
† Notitia Editionis Codicis Bibliorum Sinaitici. Edidit Ainoth. Frid. Const. Tischendorf. Lipsiæ: F. A. Brockhaus. 1860.
It appears that in his two previous journeys to the East, of the earlier of wbich he makes interesting report in his Reise in dem Orient, 1845–48, he had been, beyond expectation, successful in the acquisition of materials for publication, of one sort or another. The second journey—that of 1853, nine years after the firstbears more the character of a great disappointment than the preceding, as a narrative of the circumstances will explain.
In the year 1814 the King of Saxony furnished Professor Tischendorf with funds, to enable him to prosecute his inquiries after parchments and old books in the East. Amongst the acquisitions of that strip was a fragment of a Greek Septuagint, rescued by Tischendorf from the destruction awaiting it, and other unvalued scraps and loose leaves in a basket, where they were carelessly tossed to rot in the damp, or be consumed by ants. A larger fragment of that MS., containing Isaiah and Maccabees, he begged for in vain, because the importunity of the stranger taught the ignorant monks to set a value on their relic which they had not had independent knowledge of their own to appreciate. He ob tained, however, enough of the disjointed leaves and smaller portions to constitute a satisfactory specimen of the whole. These fragments Tischendorf published in 1816, under the title of the Friderico-Augustan Codex, in compliment to his royal patron. But the lengthened period of nine years from his first journey did not abate his longing for the remainder of the precious manuscript (ipsis membranis pretiosissimis) which he had left in such unsafe custody, and which his own publications had made so widely known. He expected that, during the interval, the MS. would have found its way into a European library, through the care of some appreciative traveler; but no tidings came of such a destination. This prompted the journey of 1853, undertaken with a determination to transcribe all that remained of the document, and to publish it on his return. But, on his presenting himself at the Convent of Mount Sinai, to his dismay, the document could no where be found. Describing his disappointment in his Mon. Sac. Ined. of 1855, he expresses his belief that it must have come to Europe, and that it lay somewhere concealed. Should it, however, be irrecoverably lost, he very fairly declares himself innocent of neglect of the manuscript, for he had frankly informed its custodians of its value, and urged upon them its more careful preservation.
Matters remained in this position for six years longer-Tischendorf engaged with his professorial duties, and editing his laborious volumes of antiquarian research, together with his Critical Greek Testaments-when, by the intervention of the Prince Von Falkenstein, Prime Minister of the King of Saxony, and the successive Russian Ambassadors at Dresden, the Baron Von Schroeder, Prince Wolkonsky, and Baron Von Kotzebue, aided by the intercession of Von Noroff, Von Kovalewsky, and Theodore Von Grimm, the eager professor's wish was gratified, with the injunction to return to his former scene of action, and secure for the Emperor of Russia wbat spoil he might of ancient Greek and Ori. ental literature. On the last day of January, 1859, Tischendorf reached his old quarters in the Convent of St. Catherine, and opened his campaign, or rather foray, with so little success, that four days afterwards he completed his arrangements, by hiring horses and camels, for returning to Cairo on the 7th of February. But an unexpected and most delightful event occurred, meanwhile, that rendered this last journey memorable above all others undertaken by the professor; for, conversing with the sub-prior, on the Septuagint translation, of which Tischendorf bad brought with bim printed copies, along with his Greek New Testaments, the conventual brother turned out of a piece of cloth, for his inspection, the very document of which he had come in search.
This revelation was a light rising upon his darkness—the flashing of an instantaneous dawn. Turning over the coveted folios, he found them to contain a considerable part of the Old Testament, the whole of the New, and the Epistle of Barnabas, along with the first part of the Shepherd of Hermas. Xenophon's returning ten thousand never hailed the waters of the Black Sea with more gladsome θαλαττα, θαλαττα, after their wearisome march and perilous adventure, than Tischendorf the resurrection of his buried love. Unable to sleep through excess of joy, he bore the treasured parchments to his cell, and spent the night in copying the recovered Barnabas. Starting, nevertheless, on the appointed day, he obtained the promise of the superior that the mutilated Codex would be forwarded after him to Cairo, to be copied as soon as the license to do so should reach the convent from their ecclesiastical head in Egypt. A very few days sufficed to obtain the required permission, and Tischendorf rejoiced in his prize, retaining it in his possession till, with the aid of two friends, he had copied its every word, letter, sign, and variation. Two months sufficed for this Herculean task, which comprised the transcription of upwards of one hundred thousand lines of Greek. This done, his joy was complete.
The original MS., it was suggested, might very appropriately be presented to the Emperor of Russia, a distinguished professor and protector of the Christian faith ; and the hint met with unani
mous compliance. As no one, however, had, at the time, the right of making the presentation, in consequence of Archbishop Constantine's death and the non-consecration of his successor, it was concluded to lend the MS., for the purpose of completing an accurate impression of its contents, leaving the question of its final ownership for future determination.
From May to September Tischendorf was free to traverse Palestine in search of hidden MSS., and was at Jerusalem at the same time with the Duke Constantine, who lent his royal countenance to his labors. In Constantinople the Russian Ambassador, Prince Lobanow, received him as his guest in his palace, a circumstance we feel pleasure in recording, the priesthood of letters receiving due homage at the hands of the princes of the people. From this enlightened noblernan, Tischendorf learned of the existence of another notice since his own of the Sinaitic Codex, namely, one from the pen of the Archimandrite Porphyry, who, in 1846, had examined its peculiarities, when he visited the monastery in the desert. These he describes in his publication of 1856 at St. Petersburg, but makes such mistakes as would naturally occur in the case of a person not conversant with textual criticism. The Greek divine, for instance, supposes the MS. to follow the Euthalian prescript in its stichometry; and, as this arrangement of the text dates about four hundred and forty-six, that the MS. may be of the fifth century. From this surmise he conjectured that its corrections belong to the same age, and that, by means of these, a peculiar text-call it the Alexandrian-was brought into harmony with that of the universal Church. These suppositions are gratuitous and incorrect. The arrangement is not Euthalian; nor if it were, would its age be decided thereby—its upward limit would, indeed, be fixed, but not its downward. Its corrections are made by many distinct hands, the two most important being of a date several centuries after the original writing of the MS. ; and the corrections, though often concurrent with the orthodox and received text, more frequently diverge from it. The learned priest, moreover, though duly impressed with the archaic aspect of the document, adopted no measures for transcribing it, or making it available for critical purposes. He knew nothing of the fact that the Shepherd of Hermas in Greek was a desideratum of scholars, as well as the earlier part of the epistle of Barnabas, or he would probably have had these, at least, transcribed for the satisfaction of the Christian world. The venerable Archimandrite was evidently more of the amateur than the connoisseur. No man is great in every line. Non omnes omnia possumus.
On his return to St. Petersburg, in October, 1859, Tischendorf was graciously received by the Emperor and Empress, who examined seriatim the professor's stores. By Alexander's command they were exhibited publicly for a fortnight, and the Sinaitic Codex