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inion of operation in any enterprize, whether best, who arlord them the best chance of of offence, or of defence. If we had car- enjoying the good things of this world, withied freedom to ihe shores of Portugal, why out any regard to the circumstances of names hould there not have been, by this time, or of nation. ifty thousand fortuguese, wall armed and THE DECLARATION, dated the 4th ingnipped, and tolerably disciplined, ready stant, and just published, respecting the o march against the Fiench in Spain In- orertures of France and Russia, from Erstead of which an English army is necessary FURTH, is, in my opinion, the most insigto keep “ the refractory Portuguese in or. nificant state-paper, that I have seen, for ler," The Nabobs' Gaze te tells us, that it some time. It was certainly right to is only the lower classes who are discon- make known to the world, that no nego"* tented." Very true. Only those who have ciations were going on. The reasons given no share of the good things. Very true, I dare for this are quite sufficient, and very well say. I'll engage that the Alcades and the and co icisely stated ; but, it is impossible, Bishops, who eat the beef, and the Capu- | I think, for any man of a just mind, to chins who sup the broth, are, as they always approve of the partiality, which is shown have been, for “ social order and regular towards the Emperor of Russia, who in “ government;" and, if the figliting part abetting Buonaparte, with respect to Spain, was performed by them, things might go is, of the two, most worthy of censure. pretty smoothly on; but, alas! this part | Nor do I, for my part, approve of the fills upon those who have none of the good charge against Napoleon of having dethings; and, in times like the present, they " posed and imprisoned friendly sovereigns." are very apt to aspire to a share of them; The kings of Spain went to Bayonne withthey are very apt to think it reasonable, that out any force ; without compulsion of any a share of the eatables and drinkables should, sort; and, there they aldicated their rights at last, come to their mouils. Yes, after to the Spanish throne. They might be all, it is not witchcraft, but downright hun- induced to do so from personal fear, and ger and thirst and nakedness, that work for theni janrney to Bayonne might be attribuBuonaparte. They are saying, it appears, table to the same cause ; but, I can see no plenty of masses in Portugal, and the Cou- use in calling it a deposing of them, when fier is very angry with them for seeming the fact ceriainly is involved in some doubt, disposed there to rest their exertions. But, or, at least, admits of dispute. The the Courier forgets, sure, that it is much reply “of Frunce" to the king's proposieasier to say m358 than to fight or to pay tax- tion to consult his allies and also “the goes; and, I think, the editor of that paper vernment of Spain, acting in the name would not venture to bet very great odus, “ of His Catholic Majesty, Ferdinand that the same persons, who now say masses VII;" this reply is deeply resented. It for the expulsion of the French, will not, is said to have displayed, with less than a few months hence, say mass's upon their ordinary reserva, the arrogance and inreturn. And, are these thematerials where- justice of the government of France ;" with to work in resisting Buonaparte ? Is it and, in substance, though not altogether in to he hoped ; is it within the scope of possi- manner, The reply of the Emperor of bility, that he should not, whenever he Russia is described as being eqnally offen. chooses, become the master of such a peo

sive. Two of the ministerial newspapers ple? We may fret at their conduct; the have infirmed 15, that, in his reply, NaCourier may abuse them; but, that will not poleon observed, " that it would not be dispose them to risk their lives in battle. For more unzensonalle on his part to propose exposing themselves to sich danger they " admitting THE CATHOLICS OF must have some molite, and some powerful IRELAND, as a purty to any negociamotive too ; and, unless that motive be " tion, than that we shouli propose ado given them, the Courier may keep its breath mitting the Spanish Insurgents.". If this for a more useful purpose than that of abus

the Morning Post and the ing thein and their masses.

Courier give it us, there is, indeed, no true, that the possessioa of Spain and Por- longer any ground to wonder at the asperity trgoal will make Napoleon more formidable cf the Declara:ion ; for, of any thing foller to us; much more formidable ; but, as was, of gravel than this observation it would sometime ago said with regard to Austria, / be difficult to forin an idea. One almost the Spaniards and Portugnese may be foolish fancies one hears it grate under the enongh not to perceive any great liarm in teeth of " No Popery." It cuts, not that. In short, we may rest assured, that like razors and knives, but like bits of glass the mass of the Portuguese will like those and flint stones; it tricks, not like pins and

be true,

as

- It is very

needles, but like splinters and fish-books ; | ing this kingdom no one can doubt. The it draws no blood, but leaves an aching motives wbich existed at the rupture of the festering wound; and a wound, too, which peace of Amiens, still exist in all their foris, somehow or other, shy of showing mer force; they have received strength from itself to the doctor. Mr. Canning seems time, and especially from recent events. to have been put into so'muci agony by this Our fleet is, indeed, a mighty bulwark ; observation as not to know very well what but, as has been a thousand times observed, he was about; for, the latter part of the there are modes of attack against which a Declaration is, whether as to manner or fleet cannot be brought to bcar. Experience matter, any thing, I think, but what it has proved, that our fleet cannot, at all times, ought to be. There is a pitiful hankering prevent the landing of French troops in Irestill after the Emperor of Russia ;' there are land. Now is; therefore, the time to erect, blunt attemps at severity; there is a round- in that country, an inpenetrable barrier ness of assertion that nothing short of proved against the enemy. The means are coms facts could have justified ; and, as to the pletely in our hands. They will cost is nophraseology, it may, perhaps, be thought a thing. Only a single act of parliament does compliment to it, to say, that it is equally the business. How many millions. What " unparallelled" with the usurpation of the freights of treasure, what streams of blood, throne of Spain by the Buonapartes. might be spared, by an act of parliament When parliament meets, we shall, I sup.

passed in time! pose, have all these negociation papers DUKE OF YORK's Income. -In

my

last before 1s; and, my opinion is, that it was statement, upon this subject, there was, I 10 sofien the effect of Buonaparte's sarcastic am informed, an important omission. At observation, about the Catholics of Ireland, paige gol of this volume, I stated the serethat the newspapers were enabled to let it ral sources of the Duke's income, taking bis leak out beforehand. There is, to be sure, military income at the acknowledged amount, a gross fallzcy in the reasoning of that ob- as published in the Nabobs: Gözette, which scrvation ; but, gross as it is, it is a fallacy, statement shewed that, exclusive of the imwhich mavy will not perceive, and which mense grant of crown, or rather national, will be affected not to be perceived by many lands in Surrey, the total of that income, more. And, whose fault is it, that we are paid out of the public porse, was £39,85S. exposed to the probable, or, at least,' possi- Bat, I now find, if my information be corble, effect of such a dangerous fallacy? rect, as I believe it is, that, to this enorThat question may be useless ; but, cer- mous sun must be added £7,000 a year tainly it is not useless to ask, whether ail pension, upon the IRISH establishment! possible speed ought not now to be used, in The place and pension Report of the Finance order to remove the ground, whereon it Committee, which, as I observed before, is, rests Frequently have Napoleon's news- in bulk, equal to the Old and New Testapapers sympathised with the li'ish Catholics; ment; and contaios about 300 folio pages, but, this is the first time that he has openly does not, however, contain the places and and officially given us to understand, that pensions upon the Irish establishment, except they are an object of his imperial atrention in part, but contents itself trith refering to and solicitude. There is no doubt, however, another Report, which u'as laiu (cfore par. that they Jong have been such, and that, liament some years ago, and wliich, of course, if he succeed in his present enterprize ; if very few of the present members ever saw, he get safe possession of Spain and Portugal, or ever will see as long as they live. I will the Irish Catbolics will be the next, or nearly endeavour to find out this Report, and when the next people, to whom he will directly, I have so done, I will state the fact, relatand with very lule reserve, address hini-ing to this additional pension. In the meadself. This must be evident to every man of while, I beg the reader to look again at the common sense ; and, it being evident, the whole of the article begiving at page 97 of question is, whether our government will, this yoluine. while there is yet time, adopt the means, and Botley, Dec. 22, 1809. the only poasible meaus, of preventing him fion obtaining a fait chance of final success ;

SPAIN. or whether, we are doomed to keep blunder- SIR, -Accustomed to approve and admire ing on to the end of the chapter, under the your wiitings on most subjects, I cannot but juifluence of despicable bigotry and more des. read witb a mixture of surprize and indispicable intrigue. That Buonaparte will, as nation your very lukewarm remarks ou the jong as he has life, never rest until he has late reverses in Spain, li seems with you tried r!l the means in his power of subjugat- a matter of doubt whether we night to

regard the success of the French ara circum- dispute. To some of them, particularly to stance of regret or not. From you, Sir, a Dr. Thompson, I own myselt under cousimore patriotic spirit was expected. You are derable obligations, for the satisfaction and continually looking to the abuses in the old pleasure I have received from his writings. government of Spain. Are you not assured And when, from a comparison of dates, these would be reformed ? And if that were I learn that the writer himself was able to not to be the case, is this a lime to chill the confute

now long-exploded" doctrine', blood of patriotism and raise a doubt to several years bcfore I was boin, I almost which side we should lend our hearts and feel how unlucky a wight I am to venture aid ? Look at the tremendous power of into the field against so much age, su Buonaparte. Is there an obiect that can many great names, such long experience, come in comparisus of inportance with the and such unquestio:able abilities. The diminishing of that pouver? Can any one Hampshire Brewer appears to me toʻmistake estimate the extent of his ability to injure the question at issue between us, as all the us as a commercial nation? Independent of experiments de produces either prore wincit our sympäribs with the brave resisters of his I readily admit, what with me prove notyranny, our own situation is become most thing to the purpose. When he speaks of alarming. Instead of reflections upon me as reviving the long exploded opinion, an old gorernmeni, it was expected that as to the inadequacy of a statical test of a you would have shewn that zeal and malt ertract, I can assuire hin. that he is energy (which you have displayed on more entirely mistaken ; and I cannot conceive trivial occasions) to excite and animate the from what part of my paper he has drawn spirit of this country to cvery practicable

such a conclusion. Competent experience means of assistance to the patriots. Con- will prove the accuracy of the insirument vinced that you cannot exert it at a fi:ter for the general purposes of the brewery, bat period, I trust I shall yet not be disappoint- it is no reflection on any hunian invention, ed.--Your constant reader, A. Z.-Coven- that it is not capable of an application to try, December 13th, 1 S08.

every purpose. A malt and a molasses ex,

tract are very different ; and as the original BREWERIES.

qualities of which they are composed, and SIR,--On the perusal of controversial

controversial which they possess in common, writings, we niay observe tiat a general bined in ditferent proportions, they must pertinacity attaches to most of them. We require a different mode of valuation as any defend a position merely because we liave one quality prevails in the combination; advanced it; and are ingenious in framing Where mucillage prevails, there will be arguments, by which our favourite hypo- an increase of spissitude without an increase thesis may be supported. It was ander a of value; and there may be a liquor of full persuasion that there is in the human greater tenuity which possesses more sacchamind a tendency to this sort of obstinacy, rine virtue, and is capable of becoming an that I ventured niy remarks on the first pa- article of superiour flavour and vinosity. · per of the Hampshire Brewer. And as we I am not so fortunate as this gentleman in are all desirous of taking credit to ourselves, having a number of learned authorities to for our full share of candour and ingenious- quote ; but, however, I have one, and that ness, I trust I may be intitled to a presump- in itself a host; -it is the Hampshire Brewer tive credit for my own openness to the full himself. When he admits that a third part of force of my respondents' arguments, and a a wort of Solbs. per barrel, is superior to anoreadiness to acknowledge my conviction, ther of 10lbs. per barrel, merely because of should they be able to effect it. There can the greater prevalence of mucillage in the be no reason, sufficient to induce an honest latter, does be not by this concession estaman, to persist in error after he is convinced blisha that opinion which he is labouring to of it; neither can there be any, for renoun- overthrow, and prove that the instrument, cing an opinion without its being fully con- indicating in both instances an equal gravity, futed. Had the reply of the Hampshire is insufficient to shew their relative value?Brewer been such as to satisfy my mind, il Mr Martineau's experiments nearly coinc de should have been followed by an ample with my owo), as to the final gravity which acknowledgement; but I should deern it will appear by the instrument in a separate worse than folly, ie admit the force of ar- solution of either malt or sugar; but, I gaments, of the illegitimacy of which I think, neither of them sufficient to form am firmly persuaded. That gentleman bas the basis of a decision. From many expeshrouded himself under the protection of riments which a private friend of mine bas pames, the greatness of which no one will made on the subject, and which have been

any con

that prove ?

mate reasons.

frequently repeated under my own

eye, the gentleman has introduced, I consider with the most critical exactness, I draw a it as quite irrelevant, as it has no bearing on conclusion very different from that gerie- the question immediately al issue. Their man's. In two gyles, the one brewed from manner of estimating the differences bemalt only, and the other having in it a solu- tween English and Scotch barleys and malis tion of sugar, in the proportion of one- was certainly judicious. And what does tenth part of the total aggregate of ferment

Why nothing, but what I able matter under operation ;-the malt in am as well convinced of as the Hampshire both instances being from the same flooring, brewer himself. But though I am cumpelthe fermentation similar, and the final gravi- led thus to differ from a gentleman ef such ty equal, per the instrument; and yet the abilities, experience and information, yet it latter product has been found uniformly su will be impossible for such difference to perior to the other as an agreeable and vinous lessen that respectful sentiment I felt tobeverage: it possessed a greater fulness on wards him on the perusal of his first valuathe palate, and was a liquer to which the ble paper. I now close the correspondence best judges would give the preference. on the subject by thanking him for the That the superiority of the one, was owing frankness wiih wbich he bas communicated to the sugar that was used, there can be no his sentiments, and by claiming for myself doubt ; nor can there be any, that the in- a right to dissent from the greatest authoristrument was incapable of shewing that ties when I have reason to doubt whether superiority. It was with this fact in view, their arguments are founded on legiti. that I wrote my former letter ; but I do not

To you, Mr. Cobbett, I am know that it will have the same weight with indebted for your impartiality, and for the Hampshire brewer, that it has with me. the space you have allowed for the As to the result of distillation, however discussion, and am obliged by the reaconclusive he may deem it, I must beg leave diness you have shewn in giving insertion le to differ from him. The question is not as the correspondence--I remain, Sir, &c. to the production of the greatest quantity of CANDIDUS. Malton, 19th Decemler, 1803. ardent spirit, but as to the value of either sugar or molasses used in a limited propor

BREWERIES. tion in the brewing of malt liquor. The SIR ;- It is rather unfair to make your production of a wash suitable to the distil. valuable Regisier a medium of discussion on 10's purpose, will certainly require a mode any particular art or manufacture, but as of management different from that which you have alr :ady admitted the subject, I will be pursued by an intelligent brewer. am induced to trouble you for a smail space Will not iwo woris of equal gravity, yield a in a paper of such general instruction, for a different quantity of proof spirit, as they are few observations on the statement of the fermented either in the best way for beer, gentlemen who sign themselves “ a Hamp. or as they are usually fermented for wash ! i shire Brewer" and “ Candidus" in your Next to potency, two of the most desirable Registers of the 12th and 20th of Nov.; qualities in malt liquor are, early transpa- and 10th of Dec.-The difference in the Tency and fulness; but were the distiller's opinions of these gentlemen, on a subject method of fermentation to be followed in which the former bas so laudably brought the brewery, I think we should be bardly before the public, seems to arise solely from able to obtain either. While it must be Candidus' supposing that nothing but a acknowledged, that the particular method saccharum is capable of the vinous fernenwhich is most proper for obtaining them, tation, and that therefore the instrument would be inimical to the production of spirit used in the brewery cannot be an accurate by the still.

As the two purposes then, re- measure of sweets;" so far he is rigbt, quire two different methods of treatment, for although it cannot possibly express the what inay be an infallible test of value in quantity of sweets contained in any extracts, one case, may not be so in the other. And

it ascertains exactly their relative value, or as the quantity of ardent spirit will depend amount of fermentable matter, under which upon the fermentation of ihe wash, as well

Term is comprehended saccharum, mucilage, as upon its previous gravity, its product can- and perhaps a little oil; in short, wbueier not be a certain criterion of the value of its is extractable from corn or grain, or soluble original materials, any further than a similar from other substances, where a small portion treainient obiains, but will be unavailing of saccharum is present-from all which, when treated in a ditterent manner and for experiment proves, that equal specific gra... a dillerent purpose. As to the testimony of vities will give equal quantities of ardent Dis. Thompson, Hope and Coventry, which spirit, thereby exploding the commonly

received opinion that sweets alone are capa nevei again be repeated. This reform shall ble of producing alcohol.-C n dus however be effected in spite of the religious zeal of had great reasons for his inquiries on the the English, in spite of the alliance which subject, which I presure will be farther they have formed with the moukish imposelucidared when it is explained (it explana- lors, who bave given our Lady del Pilar and tion be necessario gentlemen who handle he saints of Valladolid the power of speech. the subject o ably) why the sacchrometer England has for ber allies, exclusive monopoin general use will not indicare above one. ly, the inquisition, and the Franciscans i all third of the " gross weight of the sribstance are alike to her, if she can bui sow discord “ dissolved," for as il is impossible that among nations, and delige the continent either of those in question can undergo with blood.-An English brig, the Ferret, solution without increasing the bulk of the which leit Portsmouth the lith of his solvent, therefore a saccharometer (I wish month, came to an anchor on the 22d, in I could find a better term for the instru- !he port of St. Andero, not knowing that ment), indicating the difference of weight the place was in the ocenpation of the French. between a barrel of water and a barrel of She had op board inporians di patches, and wort, on which scale those in general use a great quantity of English papers, which are, I believe, formed, can by no news were secured. - At St. Audero were found express the quantity of fermentable water great quantities of Jesuit's bark and colonial in pounds aroiri upois, contained in such produce, which were sent to Bayonne.-The barrel of wort; which may however be duke of Dalmatia has entered the Aniurias. discovered, very nearly, by multiplying the Several towns and many villages have begged anount per accharometer by 2, 7; as is to submit, in order to avoid falling into ihe proved by ascertaining the weight of malt abyss dug for them by the counsels of fobefore brewing, and the grains (being com- reigners, and by the passions of the multipletely dried) afterwards. Instead, therefore, tude. of a quarter of malt weighing from 300 10 Eleventi Bulletin of the French Army of 236 pounds, yielding from 5 to 80 pounds Spain, duted drunda de Duero, Nov. 27. of saccharine (termentable, I presume) His majesty on the 19th sent off ihe matter, it reaily produces from 202 to 216 marshal duke of Muntebello with instrucpounds avoirdupois.--As to the brewery in tions for the movements of the left, of general, sugar canuot be introduced to which he gave bm the command --The advantage, for it is by no

duke of Mcnebullo and the duke of Corperabundant saccharum which is

which is there negliano concerted measures together at required, but an extract where mucilage Lodosa ou the 20th, for the execution of bears the greater proportion.- With every the orders of his majesty. On the 21st, a pology for continuing a subject which can the division of general Sagrarige, wiih the interest so few of your readers, I am respect. brigade of light ca.alry of general Colbert, fully, Sir, &c.-I. H.-Guernsey, Dec. 19, and the brigade of dragoons of general 1508.

Dijon, set out fro! Lagrogno, by the right

of the Ebro At the same time the four OFFICIAL PAPERS.

divisions, composing the corps of the duke SPANISH REVOLUTION.-Tenth Bulletin of of Curnegliano, passed the river at Lodosa,

the French Army of Spuin.-(Continued abandoning the whole country between the from p. goo.)

Ebro and Pampeluna. -On the 22d, at the The very mountains have afforded them break of day, ibe French army began its but a feeble protection. But thanks to march. It took its direction to Calahorra, the power of the inquisition, the influence where, on the evening before, were the of the monks, their dexterity to seize all head quariery of Castanos; it found that pens, and to make them speak all lan- town evacuated, and afterwards marched guages, it is still believed, throughout great upon Allaro ; the enemy bad in like manner part of Spain, that Blake has been vic- retreated.- On the 23d, at break of day, torious, that the French arıny has been des- The general of division, Lefebvre, at the troyed, and the imperial guard taken. head of the cava.ry, and supported by the Whatever

may be the momentary success of division of general Morlat, forming the adthese wretched shifts, and of these ridiculous vanced guard, met with the enemiy. He efforts, the reign of the inquisition is over; immediately gare information to the duke of its revolutionary tribunals will no longer Montebello, who found the army of the harrass any country in Europe; in Spain, as

enemy in seven divisions, consisting of at Rome, the inquisition shall be abolished, 45 COO men, under arms, with its right and the horrid spectacle of auto-da-fés shall before Tudela, and its left occupying a line

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