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then, let that Lord explain to an abused approving letters and addresses are some. and most grossly insulted nation, how, for times, and particularly in cases of emerwhat reasons, from what motives, he came gency, obtained, to lay much stress upon to cause the Armistice, the only document such documents; and, we know, that, in signed by Sir Arthur Wellesley, to be pub- the present case, there existed, as to the lished to the people of England in the French disapprobution, no undue influence at all; language only, while all the other documents and that the Portuguese, whether right or were puolished in the English language only. wrong in their opinions, had no temptation,

From the first, this was a great point with when they first heard of the Convention, to · me; because, until this distinction appeared, say what they did not think..

-We now there was no reason, that I could perceive, come to the wonderfully magnified numlers of suspecting the ministers of a disposition of the French army. It has been stated, to do any thing that was wrong, or unfair.

it appears, before the Court of Inquiry, , Froin this distinction, I did begin to suspect that the number embarked amounted to unfair intentions, Yet, until now, there twenty-five thousand men. It is not averred, might be a doubt; because, until now, we that these were all soldiers ; that they were were not quite certain, that all the docu- all persons bearing arms, or capable of bearmenis carne nome in the same lunguage. ing arms; but, as the public must have Now we are certain as to that fact; and, observed, and with no small degree of there can be, I think, but very little differ- surprize and indignation, all the generals, ence of opinion as to the motive, whence all and others, who have been called upon to the other documents were translated for pub.. state their opinions as to the expediency of lication, while that one, that one which the Convention, have reasoned upon this alone bore the name of Sir Arthur Welles

fact, relating to numbers, as if all the ley, was published in French.-----The next persons embarked were actually so many tbing, towards which the public should, in capable of being brought into the field of my opinion, direct their attention, is the battle. Now, if this were so, is it prostatement of Sir Hew Dalrymple, accom- bable, that Junot would, in the first inpanied with documents to prove, that, after stance, have met Sir Arthur Wellesley with a few days' consideration, the Portuguese no greater a force than fourteen thousand expressed their pleasure at, and their grati- men ? Is this probable ? And, then, when tide for, the Convention ; ; yugh, at first, he actually i go jated, he had, if this new they had loudly condemned it; whence it is edition of numbers could be believed, more meapt, that we should draw an inference fighting men than our armıy consisted of, favourable to that measure, which has, in even after the arrival of Sir Hew Dalrymple this country, been so decidedly and so gene- and Sir Harry Burrard. Nay, when Sir rally condemned. But, Sir Hew Dalryiople, John Moore arrived, and he did not arrive before he prevails tipon me to adopt this in- till after the Armistice was signed, our ference, must show me, that this change of whole army, even then, amounted to only language proceeded from some new lights, one-sixth more than that of the “ Duc wbich the Portuguese bad received npon the " d'Abrantes" is now made to amount to, subject; he must let me see the grounds of he having all the fortresses and strong holds their change of opinion ; he must convince and positions, not only at his cornmand, but me that their reasoning was correct; and, in bis possession. I appeal to the sense and above all things, he must convince me, that judgment of the reader, whether Junot . the persons, who had, at first, expressed would have dared to make an offer of opinions hostile to the Convention, were evacuation under such circumstances ? So not under the smallest apprehension, that a much as to the reason of the case; but, continuation of that hostility might be at- Sir Arthur Wellesley, in his dispatch, told ended with disagreeable consequences to us, that he defeated: the WOLL of the themselves. I remenaber an English House French force, commanded by the Dexe of Commons, why, on one day, by an al- « of Abrantes in person ;" and, indeed, that most unanimous vote, did, upon a motion the whole, or very nearly the whole, of the of the rinister (Mr. Addington) decide in effective force was that day in the field, there the ati imacive relating to a certain tax; and can be very little doubt. It is barefaced cho, when, on the morrow, the same mi- hypocriey to affect to believe, that Junot, sister, proposed to negative that same pro- who had so much time tor preparation ; position, did, without any division, or op- who had the choice of time as well as of osition at all, give their vote in the said place; whom it so evidently behoved to have segative. We, who were not born yester- driven our tirst-advancing battalions into lay, know too much of the ineans, by which the sea ; who had received a check on the

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day before ; and who had all his means at question ; but, I have not yet heard it pot by - his back and completely at his command : any of the great captains, now sitting in the it is barefaced hypocricy to affect to believe, Court at Chelsea. The truth is, that our gethat such a Commander, so situated, would nerals appear to have eyes wonderfully adapt.

march to the attack of superior numbers ed to the discovering of difficulties and obleaving nearly half of his efficient force structions. We have often been amused in a state of inactivity. Besides, the reader with descriptions of the miserable state cí will not fail to bear in mind, that, wh:n the French armies ; the shoe-less, bat-less, the news of the Convention first reached shirt-less state of the "wretched conscripts, England; it was asserted, by the friends of “wliom Napoleon leads to battle in chairs Sir Arthur Wellesley, that “if he had not But, somehow or other, these wretches do “ been prevented from following up his fight and get on. They feed on the air, per:

victory of the 21st, the WHOLE French haps ; but, certain it is, that they live; tber army must inevitably have leen destroy: find something to eat and to drink. Alas. - od." Now, either this was a falsehood; Buonaparte has generals, who can shift, for it was, from beginning to end, a lie, in- a while at least, without port wine and fez· vented for the purpose of raising Sir Ar- ther-beds; and he has, of course, soldier thur Wellesley in the public estimation, at who follow their example. To hear the the expence of Sir Harry Burrard's reputa- miserable excuses of a scarcity of provisions

either this was a foul and malignant want of horses and carriages, want of canlie; or, it is not true that Junot ever had, non, and the like, is truly deplorable, at : alter ihe landing of any part of our army, time when we have just been witnessing the twemy-five thousand effective inen under campaigns in Austria, Moravia, and Poland: his command. It is curious to observe, how campaigns, at one half of the battles of this French army is raised, or lowered, as which, in the midst of winter, Frencbmen the purposes demand. They were nothing, 1 bred up under a southern climate, fonght up ? when the purpose was to persuade the pub- to their knees in ice and snow, at the end lic, that Sir Harry Burrard was guilty of of a march, which had left them scarcely a ike crime of preventing Sir Arthur Welles- shoe to their foot, and in which hardships ley from putting an end to them ; the officers had shared with the man. :

stroying the whole of them," after the this is to be our manner of making war, manner of Captain Bobadil; but, now, if to go into the field of battle, we mus when the purpose is to defend the Conven- have our English luxuries, let us, in the tion, it being no longer to be denied, that name of common sense, give up the thing Sir Arthur Wellesley had a principal share in at once; withdraw from the contest ; star making that instrument; now, the French at home in ale-houses and barracks; keep i army was very, numerous, nearly twice as guard over the prisoners taken by the skül! strong as the army with which Sir Arthur and valour of the navy; and no longer esbeat thein. It is; it is, say what they will, pose ourselves to the scorn and derision i the old story of the Buckram Men revived. the world. These are the points, which,

The reader will see, that, at Chelsea, as far as the proceedings bave hitberto gor: there is great stress laid upon the state of the and been published, have chiefly attracted army's provisions. Provisions, we are told, my attention. Out of the circumstances of were not to be got on shore, in Portugal, Sir Arthur Wellesley's command, however, and those, which we had on board, it there arises a question or two, wbich are was ditticult to land, I have asked this worthy of great attention,

. Whether this question before, but I will ask again : officer received the usual sum given to como how did the “ Duc d'Abrantes;" how did manders of expeditions for their out-fit, toWeilesley's Tartar Duke ; how did he ob-gether with the staff-pay and enormous alFajn provisions. He had, they now tell us, lowance of a lieutenant general command4w niy-five thousand men; he had long ing in chief, including bat and forage mekad them there ; he lrad had no communi. ney, which last alone would, I imagine, cation with the sea ; he had even the Rus- amount to, at least, five hundred pounds bian fleet to feed, besides his own army. There is, too, it has been publicly stated, How did he, who had all the people for another general, employed upon the staff of enemies ; how did he obtain his supplies of the same army ; I mean the érother of Lex? gorovisions, in this sad barren country, and Castlereagh, who, along with the pay and Not only enough for the time being, but eidolumenis of a major general, l'al and f» enough to horde up stores for the long linger- rage moisey, &c. &c. receives pay, agreea. mig siege, which our heroes apprehended ; bly to the report laid before the House of I am in tribulation for an answer to this Commons, as an under setielary of salt

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to the amount of two thousand pounds a made up as to any point whatever. It is year. Will the House of Commons make impossible to shake it. The present proinquiry into these matters? Will they ascer- ceedings have only strengthened the opinions tain, whether Sir Arthur Wellesley, whe. already formed. There is no man, who ther the man who signed the Convention of looks with even the smallest degree of inCintra ; whether this man was, at that time, terest to the proceedings at Chelsea ; and, and had been, for months before, receiving if no other mode of Inquiry be instituted, pay, at the rate of sir thousand pounds a fresh applications to the throne will certainly year, as chief secretary of state in Ireland be made. Will they inquire into these interesting maf

There appears to be some rea. ters? Are these things right? Will any sy- son to fear, that Napoleon is in but too fair copbant, however base he may be, say that a way of finally accomplishing his accursed these things ought to be tolerated ? To be

purposes, with regard to the Spaniards. I " loyal" must a man hold his tongue upon was, but a few weeks ago, reproached by a matters of this sort ? Is it to shew one's love | correspondent for having, at first, expressed of the country and of the constitution, to my fears, that the Spaniards would be sub, wink at these crying abuses ? And, lastly, dued : I wish, with all my heart, that this does the existence of such abuses tend to ground of reproach, if it be one, may hold strengthen, or to overthrow, our excellent good to the end. I would much rather be form of kingly government ? _There is regarded as a fool for the rest of my life, one general remark to add upon the proceed than that tyranny, in any shape, should, iogs of the Court of Inquiry; and that is this: in a nation like Spain, triumph for a single that all the persons, hitherto examined, are, day.--The Morning Chronicle has an armore or less, parties concerned. They should, ticle complaining of the conduct of the consistently with reason, be called upon for GENERAL JUNTA in Spain; and, though nothing but official returns, or other docu- one does not like to begin to blame, at a ments; not, at least, in the present stage of moment when the blamed party appears to the business. What are their opinions to be experiencing a reverse of fortune, it must us? They will hardly say, that they think be acknowledged, that, as far as we can they have done wrong. They will hardly judge at this distance from the scene, and give such evidence as is calculated to throw with means of information so imperfect, blame upon themselves. We are proceeding there is, as the Chronicle observes, but too as if upon an implied acknowledgement, that much reason to look back with regret to the an English army can never, in any possible Junta of Seville. ---The General Junta case, do amiss. But, the fact is, that whole may be composed of wise and good men ; armies have frequently done amiss. Whole but, it does not breathe the spirit of the battalions, at least, have been disgraced, Junta of Seville. It does, perhaps, contain and, in some cases, have had their colours, more of rank than the Junta just named : and the facings of their coats, taken from but more rank and title will, I skould think, them. I do not say, that the army in Por- do, in such circumstances, little, or nothing. tugal, or any corps of it, is under a shade ; -The General Junta appear to have dibut, I do say, that we have nothing to do, rected their attention chiefly to the keeping in the way of evidence, with the opinions of of the people quiet; to the maintaining of any of the generals employed upon that ser. ' " order and tranquillity ;to the represvice. It is impossible, that such an Inquirysing of all violences, proceeding from popu. can prove satisfactory to any man, who really lar con motion. But, with their leave, ihis is wishes for satisfaction. There may be men, not the way to oppose Buonaparte and his who will feign that they are satisfied, that daring legions. The object of the Jauta all is well, though they hear of the “ Duc is, doubtless, to nip, in time, the bud of " d'Abrantes” having again taken posses- insurrection ; lest, in, the end, the people, sion of his Dukedom; but, the nation at proceeding from one step to another, over. large never will, and never can, and never turn the whole system of the government, in ought to be satistied, with any thing short church as well as in state, as was the case in of a fair, open, legal, and rigorous inves- France. But, the question is, is Buonaparte tigation into the causes, which have produ- 10 be resisted by any means other than those ced such disastrous e:fects. Parliament will, of a general insurrection; a general lettingindeed, have full power to take the matter loose of the people? I think, that he is up; and, if all other modes of legal inves- not; and that the nobles of Spain have to rigation are refused us by the ministers, we choose, whether they will see king Jo. shall look to that with great anxiety. The seph upon the throne, or see the people lett nud of the nation never was more decidedly to ast as they please. There waule, in


Spain, a renovation of character ; an entirely') of Spain the object, which we thought they new spirit excited ; new talents called forth should bave in view, and for the effecing of from obscurity. Therefore, if the nobles wbich we would give our aid. I ain afraid, have assembled in a Junta, and are en- that this tended to damp the rising spirit of deavouring to keep the people quiet ; to the people. There are persons, I know, preserve “ order and tranquillity," they, who, rather than see the French resisted by in my view of the matter, are taking pre- a patriotic insurrection, would see Joseph cisely the wrong course. It is, in that case, Buonaparte in safe possession of the throne, little more than the old government, ad- This is a fact, which has been all aloog ministered by deputy, under which, it is my evident enor.zh, and which was, long ago, decided opinion, that,

or later,

dwelt upon by me. But, such persons must Spain must fall. It is not cautiousness that be very unwise, very short-sighted; for, ia is now wanted in Spain. It is vigour ; it is the end, all the evils, which they may activity ; it is great daring; it is enthusiasm. apprehend from the success of a patriotic Anger, resentment, revenge ; every feel- insurrection, must come, and come swifter ing that leads to violence. These are wanted too, through another channel. As to our in Spain. With these Buonaparte may be armies, in Spain, they really appear to be resisted; but, without them, it seems to in a rather - unsatisfactory state," at preme that he cannot.- - There is one decree, sent. They are, however, under experior edict, of this General Junta, from enced commanders ; and, let what will be which, if it be authentic, it is impossible their fate, they will have done their best to not to forebode great evil. I men that, assist the cause. It is impossible, that either whereby they attempt to put a stop to what ministers or . commanders can foresee they call - the licentiousness of the press." every thing : something must be left to luck; If the press assault only Buonaparte and and, therefore, if the expedition should fail, his friends, it is evident that it cannot be under Generals Moore and BAIRD, I should too unshackled. Why attempt to check it, not, from the bare circumstance of failure, unless it be feared, that it will produce what be disposed to blame the ministers. In is thought to be mischief, in Spain ? And, the two Morning Chronicles of Tuesday and if, so soon, the Junta itself be afraid of Wednesday last, there appeared some very the press, the reader will easily suppose, spirited and able articles upon the conduct of that much of a change is not in contem- the ministers, with regard to the war in plation, a fact which, the moment it is Spain and Portugal. They are well worth discovered by the people, will admonish reading; but, I do not agree with the them not to be very lavish of their blood. writer, that it was so easy a matter to know I must confess, that this little circunstance, precisely what ought to be done, at the time this decree, for which the Junta will be, I when the expeditions were first sent cut. dare say, greatly applauded by many, bas, Let the ministers have all the blame that is in my mind, excited very serious fears for their due, but no more. It is the fashion, the Spanish cause; because, if authentie, because it accords so well with party inoit argues a distrust of the pcople, and an tives, never to blame the commanders, but opinion, on the part of the Junta, that the always to blame the ministers. This is out country is to be defended by the old ordina- only unjust in itself, but it has a very mis1y mans ; than which, I am convinced, the chievous tendency, as to the conduct of result will prove nothing in the world to be those commanders, who, be that conduct more erroneous.---As to the check, or the what it may, are sure to meet with, at least, defeat, for such I fear it is, that General Blake an indireci defence, from one party or the has received, I think nothing at all of it. How other. It is not so in the French service, many such defeats did the French experience, where the commander is looked to, and 06at the out. set of their revolutionary war: body but the cominander. There is nobody They rose more powerful after each defeat. found to accuse the war-minister of pot It is true, that there is some little difference sending him to the right joint, or of not betwe+n the assailants of the Spaniards and supplying him with horses or provisions

. those of the revolutionary French. Yet, The fact is, we have nothing but ibe parade ibis I do not value, if the Spaniards have a of military service. We have no really mispirit like that of the French ; if they are litary notions; for, if we bad, we never animated by motives like those by which the should endure complaints against the minisFrench were animated. I cannot help think- try for having exposed a general to digiing, that it was very unwise in us to send an culty and danger," the existence of which envoy to the king of Spain. This was, in are always implied when men talk of war. fact. one way of pointing out to the people -That ten thousand English (roops

should, at a moment like this, be, as the it; will not be less than they now are. Morning Post states, necessary to " curb We were told, that the Americans could " the refractory disposition of certain class- starve the West India Islands. Those Is" es of the Portuguese," is, indeed, matter Jands were, perhaps, never much better for serious reflection ; for, in the first place, supplied from America than they now are, the “refractory” must, if this necessity do and have been ever since the embargo was really exist, be the most powerful part of the laid. The town of Halifax, in Nova Scotia, nation; otherwise, they might be “ curbed" is become a grand depository for Ameriby the part, who are not refractory. Then, can produce, whence it is shipped to what is the mark of this refractoriness? Is the West Indies. And, in fact, all that it a disposition favourable to the French ? Mr. Seiferson and his bitter set have Is it a spirit of hostility to the Prince Regent done, with a view of injuring England, has or the old goveroment? Or is it a dislike to had no other effect than that of injuring his the English authority? One or the other foolish constituents. of these, I think, it must be. If the latter, CORN AGAINST SUGAR.-- -The effect of it is quite evident that to withdraw our troops the American Embargo puts one in mind of and our authority is the only etlectual way the alarm of the Barlsy-Grouers," who of removing the necessity of keeping troops are now selling at írom 50 10 60 shillings a locked up in Portugal; and, if either of the quarter that corn, which they were afraid former, it would, I think, puzzle the Morn- would siok lelow 37 shillings a quarter ; and ing Post to assign any probable good that who, upon seeing the ports in the Baltic will arise from keeping them there. To and in America closed against us, were cherish, or defend, a people against their will, seized with a dread, that we should be is a most difficult as well as a most ungrateful starved in consequence of being able to contask. It is a task, which, from the nature of vert into bread 300,000. quarters a year of things, can never be attended with success. that corn of our own growih, which we Is it not a strange thing, that, amongst formerly employed in making spirituous


there has never yet appeared one, that has demon- duce me an instance of folly equal to this. strated any great degree of anxiety for the Mr. Wakefield denied me the privilege of return of their former rulers ? Some few judging upon such a subject, because I was have fought a little to keep the French out; not a practical farmer. Just as if it was but, when once in, there is scarcely any necessary for a man to be a good hand at people that have discovered any very strong ploughing and sowing, in order to be certain wish to get them out again. Who would that 300,000 quarters of bread corn would not have supposed, that the people of Por- add to the food of the nation.

It was a tagal, for instance, would have been half question of such plain common sense, that, mad with joy at their “ deliverance ?" to come to a right decision, their required Who would not have expected to see them neither experience nor reason. Barley must rie with each other in eagerness to obtain a now be dear till next harvest; so that, at return of the ancient order of things ? Who any rate, there is one year for the Barleywould have imagined it likely to be neces. Growers, free of that mischief, which they sary for us to keep ten thousand men in the really did, or affected to, anticipate. country, “ to curb the refractory disposition " of certain classes " of a people, just de. *** A letter from LORD Anson to the livered from the grasp of the French, and Freeholders of Staffordshire is inserted, berestored to the rule of the representatives of cause it is right that my readers, who have their “ beloved sovereign"? I should like seen the letter of A. B. should see, that that to hear the sapient editor of the Morning nobleman had it not in his power to be prePost explain this political phenomenon; for sent at the county meeting. it is a matter of vast importance with all The Income of the DUKE OF York I do those who study the science of government. not state this week, because my intention

AMERICAN States -The election of is to publish, along with it, the whole of the new President and Vice President, which the act of parliament, granting him the eshas taken place before now, will, it is tate in Surrey, and which is too long to be thought, terminate in favour of the Jeffer. inserted, except in a double number. son party, and in the election of MR. MA- MAJOR HOGAN does not answer my reDion to the office of president. If so, the quest. I have a letter before me, saying, embargo will, probably, continue ; but, the that, next week, “ the publisher of Major violations of it, the almost open defiance of Hogan's Appeal will send me a letter upon

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