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Sir, are new dilemmas. Will ministers and punishable. And it is right it should be venture, in these particulars, to adhere to No min ought to arrive at, or to acthe practice of grand juries ; and to direct cept, the command of a fleet or an army, their court to take the examination of every without professional judgment and skill. witness on the side of the proscention who His situation requires these qualities. He is shall present himself ?---Should thev take paid for exercising these qualities in the serthis course, any indignant Englishuan may vice of his country. It was more from a demand admittance to their presice, with want of these qualities, than from any proof the Gazette in his hand, containing the three of cowardice, that Admiral Byng was sendocuments, signed by Sir Arthur Wellesiey, ! tenced to die. Un-officer-like conduct, in Sir Hew Dalrymple, and Sir Charles Cot point of skill, was one of Sir iługh Pallistón, containing the Armistice, and the two ser's charges against Admiral Keppel; and parts of the Convention. The accusation of for an imputed misconduct, by Sir Robert those officers is, for having signed those ducu. Calder, in bis mancuvres, tending rather ments and carried the conditions of them into to cover and secure the two line-of-battle execution. It is no matter whether the cir. ships he had taken, than to hazard their loss cumstances which the accused persons have again by attending to nothing but how he to bring out upon their trials before a court should get avain into action with the enemy, marial will, or will not exculpale the:11 ; that that gallant, and I must needs think all that is legally necessary for putting them very judicious officer, was sentenced to a upon their irials is, to prove that they are grievous humiliation. It may, Sir, be dis the persons who signed and acted upon those gressing from the point immediately in hand, documents. If the court should have any to say more on the case of Sir Robert Caldoubts or those facts, they must call for the der, whose person I never saw but once in originals, and for the proofs of the signa- iny lite, and with whom I have not the tures. If, in the coroner's phrase, there smallest connection ; but I so warmly feel have been accessaries or accomplices among the injury which in my mind was done him, persons unknown, that may come out in evi. that I cannot but remark, that the very condence; and then, in my judgment, it will duct for which he was reprimanded, was the be time enough to talk of parliamentary in- very conduct enjoined by the immortal Nelquiries into this business. At present, we SON to the commanders under him, in have only to do with the three persons, paper written the evening before the battle who, by their assent, under their of Trafalgar. In that paper, presuming bands, have made themselves cither princi. that in the approaching action some of the pals or accessaries..-Is any special ple der enemy's ships might be captured, while a in this case to attempt talking the nation out part of the hostile fleet might be in a condiof its senses, by denying that there has been tion to attempt their recapture, he particuany criminality at all, and maintaining that larly instructed his commanders, in writing, criminality in those acts must first le proved, by way of precaution in case of his own fall, before those who performed them can be to make the security and protection of their brought tp trial? I, on the contrary, main- prizes the first object of their attention. Sir tain, that there is criminality on the face of Robert Calder not only did this effectually, those acts, a criminality that has shocked but in a masterly and most officer-like man.. and stunded the whole nation, and that it is ner, parried the enemy's attempts at reachtit those officers should disprove the accusa- ing those ports where he must have been tion, or suffer the punishment due to them. joined by a strength that would have given It is to be reinembered, that military law in him a resistless superiority.
For this conits nature and principles, is of necessity of duct, Sir Robert experienced a harsh sengreater strictness and severity, and properly tence, and has never since been employed; so, than the common law of the land. It is although, as Major C observed at Hackney, also to be recollected, chat cowardice, which the ships he took were not returned to at common law is no crime at all, is, by mi- France with drums beating, colours flying, litary law, and very properly, a he us and sixty rounds of ammunition ; but were crime, and liable to capital punishment. It conducted to an English port, and their is likewise to be recollected, that, although crews to an English prison.---To return, want of judgment, or even imprudence, in however, from this digression : while con-, a man's civil conduct in his private affairs is sidering our military law, it is very plain, no crime, yet for a military commander that there ought not to be one measure for a even to err in his judgment, or to misma- sca officer and another for a land officer; and nage the force entrusted to him, is, more or yet it is well known, that any commission ofless, according to circumstances, criminal ficer commanding a vessel, from a first rate to
a gun-brig, who loses the same, whether with business of Cintra. In this call, nothing glory or dishonour, whether by his fault or can / recognize but the voice of faction. It his misfortune, whether in fight or by ship insinuates that the blame does not rest with wreck, must be tried by a courl-martial. our military commander , but with mindse And is not this invariable rule of the service ters. I see no ground, at present, for any most proper, and most admirable?
-for- such insinuation. Ministers, as well as the got to remark before, that criminality, in nation, were taken by surprize, as to the military law, attaches to whatever is disho- existence of a hope that Spain and Portugal nourable ; and not merely in a moral sense ; could possibly be saved from the gripe of for whether an officer should commit a felo- France, since which I cannot but praise their ny, or should habitually get drunk with exertions for meeting France on that theatre. blackguards in a night-cellar, or should suf- Ready as I am to condeinn their illegal, unfer himself to be kicked in the open streets, constitutional, and corrupt ronduct for sa. or should sign, either as a besieger or a be- ving the man on whom depends the twelve sieged, a shameful capitulation, bringing | votes, yet where I see no blame, I will not disgrace on the arms of his country, he even insinuate accusation. If a rash indivi. would be alike punishable for such conduct dual of inordinate ambition, who well knew as dishonouralle. Shall then, Sir, the paval all the combinations of their council and commander of the smallest gun brig, who plans for reducing Junot, were so eager to shall lose the same, merely for that act, snatch from his superiors the wreath of vicwhether blameable or meritorious, be in- tory, that he would not allow time for those evitably, as a regular rule of the service, combinations to operate, nor for the whole brought to a court martial; and shall it for force destined for Portugal to be brought to a moment be a question, whether generals bear upon the enemy, it is extremely illibewho have signed such a capitulation as that ral to impute consequences to ministers, of Cintra, which has blasted our laurels, dis- which, as I conceive, are imputable to hin graced our arms, injured our allies, and fa- alone. So far as I can judge, they had furo youred the enemy beyond whatever is on re- nished ample means for effecting, by right cord, shall, or shall not, be brought to trial? management, the reduction of Junoi, to a wam-From the reference made at Hackney surrender ai discretion; and those, in whose to the cases of Keppel and Calder, and com- hands those means failed of accomplishing paring them with the audacious attempt 10 the object wbichi, in Porugal, was the end skreen Sir Arthur Wellesley, it is high time proposed, ought to be first brought to trial be. that this illegal, unconstitutional, and inis. fore we look farther.-1 bave another objecchievous engine of a discretionary court of tion to the calling of parliament for inquiring inquiry, to be interposed as a conductor for into the conduct of ministers. Parliament is dissipating the lightnings of national indigoa- 100 well read in Scripture to expose itself to tion, only when a minister has a friend to the rebuke of, Thou hypocrite, first cast protect, only when political purposes and out the beam out of thine own eye; and then corrupt interests are to be served, should be thou shalt see clearly to cast out the mete wrested from the hands that are so daringly out of thy brother's eye.'-No! no! its using it, and destroyed for ever. This “ brother" is safe enough from inquiry, ubministerial expedient of a court of inquiry til the arrival of that great constitutional refor saving a colleague, may perhaps remind novation, which you, Mr. Cobbett, hare you of a circumstance that happened in the from time to time, foretold was approach. case of Byng. In sight of the enemy he ing. We may have factious attacks, and called a council of war, and the consequence
factious defences, we may have hostile mowas, there was no battle. Soon afterwards, tions and bitter speeches, we may have comas Flash and Frillle, on the stage, were at mittees and commissions, and we may have high words, and clapping their hands to piles of reports as high as Pelion or Ossa, but their swords, the lady present cried out, until this renovation shall take place, we • Lord, Jord, what shall I do to prevent shall not see a minister really called to actheir fighting?' upon which an honest tar in count by a parliament, nor any department the gallery bawled out, call a council of of the state swept of its corruptions.-Marwar.'
Thus our war minister cries out, VEL.- Palace-Yard, 13th Nov. 1808. • lord, lord, what shall I do to prevent a trial ? to which the valiant landsman who
STAFFORDSHIRE MEETING. erst proposed a march to Paris, replies,- MR COBBETT,—The active and decisire • call a court of inquiry.' — -One word, Sir, part which you have taken in the question if you please, on calling upon the king to of addressing the king for an investigation assemble parliament, for inquiring into the into the causes which led to the Portugal
Convention, leaves no doubt, but the result the Hampshire meeting ; but the example of the meeting, held vesterday for the county I allude to, he would be assured, have of Stafford, will bewone a susjert of your
irregular,” as it is certainly animadversion. Of that result the news- “ precedented.” It must he admitted, howe • paper reports will give you an accurate ever, that his lordship’s sagacity, upon this detail. But I conceive that you must be occasion, is entitled to commendation, as I strangely puzzled :o account for the unani- can affirm that no person in this county mity which prevailed at the meeting, after would have been able to discover, much less reading the names attached to the requisi- to notice, the irregularity complained of, if tion, without some clew to guide your bis lordship had not kindly condescended to judgment. It is my object to give you that point it out.-Rut this was not the true clew; or rather, bg a sistement of facts reason of the noble marquis's defection. apor which you may depend, to discover to The secret must be told, though I am afraid, you the motives which actuated those Mr. Cobbett, that it will be as unpleasant slaunch friends of constitutional doctrines, for you to hear, as it was galling to the noble the requisitionists, to assert their privileges, marquis to discover. The fact is, that the and display their independent principles, universal opinion of the people of this upon this occasion. On the 24th day of county, freeholders and others, is, that an October last, a copy of a requisition was
address to his majesty for the purposes mensent to the high sheriff of this county by tioned in the requisition is not, under the Mr. Blount. The sheriff, in acknowledging present circunstances, necessary. the receipt of the same, wrote that he could this conviction, which reached his ear very have no possible objection to comply with soon afier the publication of the requisition, the wishes of the requisitionists to cait a that induced the Marquis of Stafford, to meeting of the county ; and begged that think that he acted precipitately ; and he the original requisition might be transmitted would have given (yes ; depend upon it) to him as bis voucher ; and which indeed -ne would have given one or two of his best was necessary to produce, and be read at piciures that he bad not signed that cursed the opening of the meeting Upon this, requisition !-His pride could not bear the Mr. Wolseley and Mr. Blount waited on idea of the shameful defeat that awaited him the sheriff, and told him, that they had no in his own county, and even by his own requisition signed individually, but read adherents ; much less could it bear the idea various extracts of letters which authorized of submitting to the frank acknowledgement them to subscribe the names of several of the truth.-Mark, then, to what meannes, noblemen and gentlemen, and alleged that pride is reduced.
Rather than manfully they had verbal authority for the rest. They come forward and avow his sentiments, and declined giving up the letters, but had no support the opinion he had so strongly wordbesitation to sign an authority for the sheriff, ed in the requisition,—which, be it known, which they accordingly did.-A day was was drawn up under his immediate inspecfixed for ihe meeting, and the requisition tion at Trentham,-rather than do this, the was published in the Staffordshire Advertiser Marquis of Stafford chose to seize upon an in the form in which they signed it.—To the Oid-Bailey-like quibble, and at all hazards surprize of every one, in the paper of the to abandon the object which appeared to week following, immediately under the re- him so essential to the future weltare of the quisition, appeared a renonstrative letter to country. Like the very generals, who were the sheriff from Mr. Wolseley; and a the ostensible cause of the requisition, he protest from the Marquis of Stafford who withdrew from the field, and suffered tho declined attending the meeting on the enemy to dictate his own terms.-Afier ground that the requisition was published in this desertion of a principal leader of the an “irregular and unprecedented manner." requisition force, others of inferior quality -Now, Mr. Cobbelt, I look upon it that complained that their names had been subthe zeal of the noble marquis in the cause scribed upon very slight authority, and of his “insulted and degraded country" without their being acquainted with the is not of that description which will urge nature of the requisition to be made ; and him to die a martyr in its cause ; when, up- one gentleman, as you will perceive by the on the plea of a trifling informality (which, report, through the medium of a friend, by the way, I do not admit existed), he could from the hustings, actually denied having withdraw his support from a measure to given any authority at all, for his name. which he had attached such important re. And here one cannot held remarking the sults. He might have found a better ex- judicious precaution of the sheriff in adample, Mr. Cobbett, in the proceedings of hering to the usual manner of publishing
the requisition from an authenticated ori- brought before the public: and I have only ginal.--In spite, however, of the alleged to wish that the paper might hare a circulainformality, and the noble marquis's protest, tion commensurate with its importance to the meeting was, not only very numerous, the coommunity. His general ideas on the but highly respectable. But not one man production of an uniformly good and whole. of those whose names appeared to the some malt liquor are such as can only bave requisition, came forward to
been derived either mediately or immeui. signatures, or to propose an address : al- ately from an extensive practice aided by a though Sir Robert Lawley, Mr. Wolseley, close and philosophical course of observa. and Mr. Blount, were in the town of tions. From such a writer I am sorry to Stafford during the meeting, and it was dister in any thing, but a strict regard to believed fully prepared to do so. Lord St.
truth, and especially a truth in which men Vincent, who by his own acknowledgement are practically interested, induces me to came into the county for that e:press pur- tronble you with a few observations on pose, remained quietly at Stone, about se- some remarks in the gentleman's paper i ven miles from the place of meetioy. That, and for which, I trust, he himself wil art however, the production of their delibera- deen it necessary to offer any furiher apo. tions might not be lost to the world ; and logy. - It is stated by the writer that ibe probably with a view of assisting other relative value of malt, sugar, and treacle are, county meetings with their enlightened and as 8 l'ushels of malt, so are lo lbs of patriotic principles, they have published sligar or 240 lbs of treacle," I wish the the Address which they meant to propose
writer had furnished us with the precise for the adoption of the couniy.
For the grounds of this stated ratio of value, and ( rest, they contented themselves with present. the method by which he formed it. Asia ing silly protests against an informality is, we are left to inser, from other parts of which existed no where but in their own his paper, that liis conclusions are built en blundering and sneaking conduct.--Now hydrostatical experiments; and I am the permit me, Mr. Cobbett, to ask, if it is 10 more inclined 10 suppose so from repeated this sort of men that the people of England trials, in which a given quantity of sacchaare to look up, for the maintenance of their rine substance put in solution, when ercivil and political rights, and for the re- amined by the instrument, has not increaseil dress of their many and crying grievances ; in density scarcely one third of the gross to these water flies, whose public spirit weight of the substance dissolved : a prois damped by the spleen of disappointed portion, I believe, that will nearly correspond pride, and whose patriotism is subservient with the statenent which he has furnished to courtly etiquette, and the companion of us with. But I entertain serious doubts party malevolence?-How disgusting is their whether any instrument we now have in use conduct when compared to your own upon a is adapted to shew us the relative value ci similar occasion ;-you,whoby the mere dint two nosis, the one prepared from malt and of talent and firmness carried an Address the other from either sugar or molasses. ( which I certainly believe you did) in the My reasons are these: In the extract from tace of rank, wealih, and probably of the malt a considerable portion of mucilage powerful stimulus of ministerial intluence! viscous maiter is blended with the saccharide What I have above stated you may rely which is obtained, while the extract from tipon as truth.
I could enumerate abun- molasses, for instance, is nearly a pure sc. dance of other circumstances which would charine liquor. Now, as the action of any serve to place the public spirit of these in- statical instrument must be in proportion 11 dependent gentlemen in a proper point of the specific gravity of any liquid on which view. But you are already in possession of the experim:nt is made, it is evident thu enough to enable you to deal to them that the spissiiode of the malt extract must far portion of praise which their conduct me. exceed that of the other. But is it philosoriis, in any remarks you may be induced phical to conclude from thence that the ore to make upon the meeting of this county. must necessiüily be richer and siperior 10 A. B - Litchfield, 1211 Nov. 1809. the other? į appeal to the Hampshire
Brewer himseif, Does he consider that his BREWERIES.
last wort, which, for the sake of argument, SIR;-In your Register of the 121h inst. we will suppose to weigh 10 lbs. per barrel, I was much pleased with the perasal of a equal in point of quality to a one third paper signed " A Hampshire Brower," the portion of his first wort, which we will production of a person evidently competent conclude to weigh 30 lbs per barrel? Why to the discussion of the subject he has not? Because, though the letter posssasea
an abundance of mucilage, yet it possesses subsist, but with the use of materials, the a much greater proportion of saccharine also. natural tendency of which is to being on It is with justice that he considers “ sweet" debility and disease! The evil ini kis late as the basis of vinous fermentation ; for it is been considerably increasis, traci calis for very certain, that the vinosity of any liquor, some effort to avert its besig (the fermentation &c. being equal) will be glad of the testimony h...
>; borne in proportion to the quantity of the original | by this gentleinan on ai base which it possesses. I may therefore be regret that in a paper of allowed to doubt whether the instrument opinion should be advance
riid not alluded to, be capable of that extent of bear the test of rigid examin.!
10!, application which is attributed to it, and Mr. Cobbett, I owe an apologut whether the value of the three sweets he of this letter, but when I sak, has mentioned be correct. I would be very subject has some considerable imp far from being understood as intending to attached to it, in a chemical, as u depreciate the merits of the instrument. I political and economical point of vieu I know its value too well. But though it will trust that such a consideration will be deemanswer every useful purpose to a brewer, ed a sufficient one, both to yoursell and where the extract is from malt alone, yet your readers, from Sir, yours, &c. philosophical precision requires it to be CANDIDUS.- Valton, 15th Nov. 1908. staled, that the one which is generally used cannot with any very great propriety of term
RIGHT OF Petition, de called a “ Sacharometer." If in a solu
LETTER I. ion of sweets it can only indicate about one SIR.-Your late letter to the freeholderg hird of the value, we may ask what be- of Hampshire, inserted in your Register of zemes of the remaining two thirds ? Are the 2gih of last month, is sufficient to excite, hey evaporated ? Or do they remain in the the vigilance, and arouse the ardour of iquor, enriching its quality, though in such every British subject. You have with i rare elastic forın as to elude the test of the great propriety and equal force exposed the nstrument ? I think the fact cannot possi- flimsy objections, urged by the advocates bly be doubted. Mr. Reynoldson some- of the niinistry against a full inquiry into where speaks of a friend of his (I think a the Convention of Cintra, The Answer to Mr. Bent) having a method of separating the l'etition and Address of the city of Lonbe mucilaginous from the saccharine parts don, could not, in such a discussion, esof a wort. Could sueli a method be gene- cape your censure. In fact, that memorable cally adopted, we then might have some and unprecedented Answer appears to me certain data, from which we might fix a a most dngerous attack, Made by the sercale for the valuation of any extract.
The vants of the crown, on one of the most penalty on the use of either sugar or mo- valuable rights and privileges of the peo; le asses in the brewery is too serious to risk of England; a privilege, which was dehe actual employment of them, though manded and established at the Revolution, were the circumstances of the times to and which eminently distinguishes this coun-make a revision of the act expedient, I try fiom the enslaved nations of the conhink that they might be partially used to tinent of Europe. The ministers will, Levantage. I say partially, because, if used doubtless deny the justice of the inputation ; n too grear a proportion they would destroy but let us atiend not to their protessions, he chasacteristic taste and quality of the but to their acis. A respectful, but firm beer itself. The principal obstacle to their address is presented to the crown, by the ise would be in the want of a proper ap- first city of the empire, praying that a full paratus for estimating their value. Could and efficient inquiry be made into a transe hat be effected, I should have little doubt action, which, in the opinion of the pea olt a fair comparison would evince an ad- titioners, stains with indelible disgrace the Fantage of 40 per cent in a limited use of
nanie of Britain ; they prejudge no indivia hem, instead of a lo of 20 per cent ac- dual ; they desire only that guilt may be wording to the estimate of the Hampshire investigated and punished in a fair and conBrewer. And so far from deteriorating the stitutional manner. In these sentiments beer, they would contribute to its excel- and views they are supported by the walence, and be a means of remedying the nimous voice and ardent wish of the whee delects of beer brewed from inferior aud empire. To this just and rational applica Godinary malis. But on the use of erery rion, what is the answer given by 01-> marcotic drug, let just censure fall in due servants of the crown. For lo them exa vengeance; and the trade perish, that cannot clusively belongs the odium of this une