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in slavery and oppression. Would you ra- by orders of the junta to all corporations ther die defending the robberies and im- and rich individuals, and over and above pieties of a perfidious traitor, thap sbed- a subscription shall be opened that all the ding your blood in defence of your church, inhabitants may contribute in proportion your nation, and yourselves ?-Soldiers ! to their zeal for their king and country, ye that have been the first in raising the and the urgent necessity of the cause.-8. standard of the nation, carry into yorir To these funds shall be dded patriotic camps, virtue, religion, and ihe manners loans of money, to be alterward repaid in of your forefathers. With such qualities foll; and it is expected from the public they overcame innumerable armies. If spirit of the inbabitants, that there will among the chiefs who lead you to the thea- be no occasion for forced loans, or 30y tre of glory and honour, you should perceive other proceeding, which, though it might any treachery, abandon them, and choose be violent, would still be justitiable by others more worthy of your cause. -Soldi. the necessity of the case-g. This proers! Twelve millions of inhabitants are clamatiou (bando) shall be printed and observing you and envying your glory; published by this supreme junta, and nay, even France herself panis for your tri- shall be placarded and circulated in all umphs and success.

places. - 10. All the mag strates and public

functionaries are for the present confirmed From the Supreme Junta of the Govern. in their respective offices.--Seville, 29th

ment, to all Cities and Towns, 10 le Duy, 1909.-D. Juan Bautista ESTELLER, executed with the utmost promptitude. Sec. 1o. D.J. B. PARDO, Sec. 2o.

1. Ir cities and towns consisting of ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE OF PORTUGAL. 2000 or more house-holders, a junta shall PORTUGUESE, -Your lotis, perhaps, be established, which shall superintend the hardest ever endured by any people on all arrangements, and shall he obeyed by the earth. Your princes were compelled all the inbabitants ; and in places of to fly from you, and the events in Spain smaller size, the ayuntamientos sball hold havé furnished an irrefragable proof of the place and perform the functions of the the absolute necessity of that measure.-juntas.-2. It is ordered, that with the You were ordered not to defend your, concurrence of the ayuntamiento, clergy, seives, and you did not defend yourselves. prelátes, priests, nobles and other persons Junot offered to make you happy, and so assembled, a junta of six be formed your happiness has consisted in being to receive orders from the supreme junta, treated with greater cruelty than the and correspond therewith, and in every most ferocious conquerors inflict on the particular act under their authority; and people whom they hae subdued by force the inhabitants and the corregida are re- of arms, and after the most obstinate required to obey them in their office, and sistance. You have been despoiled of every thing thereunto appertaining.–3. It your princes, your laws, your usages, your shall be the duty of this junta to enlist customs, your property, your liberty, eren the inhabitants from the age of 16 to 45, your lives, and your holy religion, which first, such as volunteer their services, and your enemies never have respected, howthen all the secular inhabitants of the ever they may, according to their custom, aforesaid age; to form them in companies, have promised to protect it, and however 1o) assign them respectable persons for they may affect and pretend to have any captains, lieutenants, and ensigns, with

sense of it themselves. Your nobility full power to name serjeants and corporals, has been annihilated, its property confiswhich they will proceed to do with all cated in punishment of its fidelity and possible dispatch.-4. They will instruct loyalty. You have been basely dragged the towns of their districts, and even those tó foreign countries, and compelled to of the neighbouring districts, to submit prostrate yourselves at the feet of the man to the same regulations, enlistments, and who is the author of all your calamities, appointments, and to advise the junta and who, by the most horrible perfidy, thereof without delay.---5. For the pre- has usurped your government, and rules sent, each company shall remain in its you with the sceptre of iron. Even no:v district, but the junia is empowered, if it your troops have left your borders, and think fit, to call together the enlistest con- are travelling in chains to die in the de. panies in the other towns. - 6. The junta fence of him who has oppressed you, by will name a confidential person to admi- which means his deep malignity may acnister, under its direction, the funds which complish his purpose, by destroying those must meet the expences of the present who should constitute your strength, and occasion.—7. These funds shall be raised' by rendering their lives subservient to his


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triumphs, and to the savage glory to which renunciation ; has behaved with the same he aspires.-Spain beheld your slavery, violence towards the Spanish nobles whom and the horrible evils which followed it, he keeps in his power-bas declared that with mingled sensations of grief and de- he will elect a king of Spain, the most spair. You are her brother, and she pant- horrible attempt that is recorded in history ed to fly to your assistance. But certain -has sent his troops into Spain, seized her chiefs, and a government either weak or fortresses and her capital, and scattered his corrupt, kept ber in chains, aud troops throughout the country-- has commit. preparing the means by which the ruin of ted against Spain all sorts of assassinations, our king, our laws, our independence, robberies, and unleard of crueltjes ; and our liberty, our lives, and even the holy

this he has done with the most enormous religion in which we are united, mighit ingratitude to the services which the Spanish accompany yours, by which a barbarous nation has rendered France, to the friendprople might consommate their own tri- ! ship it has shown her, thus treating it with umpb, and accompiish the slavery of the most dreadful perfidy, fraud and every nation in Europe- our loyalty, our treachery, such as was never committed honour, our justice, could not submit 10 against any nation, or monarch, by the such flagrant atrocity! We have broken most barbarous or anıbitious king or people. oor chains let us riien to action. We · He has in fine declared, that he will trample hare armies, we have chiefs, and the down vur monarchy, our fundamental laws, universal cry of Spain is, We will die and bring about ihe rain of our holy catholic in defence of our country, but we will religion.—The only remedy therefore for take care that these 'infamous enemies such grievous ills, which are so manifest to shall die with us."--Come then, ye ge- all Europe, is in war, which we declare nerous Portuguese! unite with Spain to ! against him.--In the name therefore of our die in defence of your country.

Her king Ferdinand the seventh, and of all the banners expect yon; they will receive Spanish nation, we declare war by land and you as brethren infamously oppressed:- sea against the emperor Napoleon the first, The cause of Spain and of Portugal is the and against France; we are determined to same : distrust not our troops- their wish- throw off her domination and tyranny, and es are the same as your own, and you command all Spaniards to act hostilely may reckon upon their courage and their against her, to do her all possible damage strength as a part of your security.--You according to the laws of war, to place an lrave among yourselves the object of your embargo upon all French ships in our ports, vengeance--obey not the authors of your and all property, and effects, in whatever misfortune--attack them.-they are, but a part of Spain they may be, whether belong. handful of miserable panic-struck men, ing to the government or to the individuals bumiliated and conquered already by the of that nation. In the same manner we perfidy and cruelties which they have com- command, that no embarrassment,

itted, and which have covered them with molestation be done to the English nation, disgrace in the eyes of Europe and the nor its government, nor its ships, property, world! Rise then in a body, but avoid or effects, nor any individual of that nation staining your honourable hands with --We declare that there shall be open and crimes, for your design is to resist them free communication with England, that we and to destroy them-our united efforts have contracted, and will keep an armistice will do for this perfidious nation; and with her, and that we hope to conclude a Portugal, Spain, nay all Europe, shall breathe durable and lasting peace. Moreover we or die free like men.--Portuguese, - Your protest, we will not lay down our arms till country is not in danger-il is already gone the emperor Napoleon the first, has restored -unite, unite, and fly to restore and to to Spain our king Ferdinand the seventh, save it..Seville, May 30, 1808.—By di- and ihe rest of the royal family; has rerection of the supreme Junta of government, spected the sacred rights of the nation, -Don JÜAN BAUTISTA ESTELLER, Sec. 1o. which he has violated, and her liberty, Don JUAN BAUTISTA L'ARDO, Sec. 2o. integrity, and independence. -- With tte DECLARATION OF WAR

same undersianding and accordance with Against the Emperor of France, Napolcon the Spanish nation, we command that the the First.

present solemn declaration be printed, postFrance, under the government of the ed and circulated, among all the people and emperor Napoleon the first, has violated provinces of Spain and America, ibat it towards Spain the most sacred compactin may be known in Europe, Africa and Asia. has arresied her monarchs--obliged thein to -Gven in the royal palace of Alcazar at a forced and manifestly void abdication and Seriile, this oth of June, 1808.-By order



of the Supreme Junta of Government.- My Lord,—The French squadron, con• Manuel Maria AGUILAK, Sec. JUAN sisting of five sail of the line and a frigate, BAUTISTA PARDO, Sec.

having placed themselves in a defensive po

sition, in the channel leading to the Caraccas, Don ALVARO Florez EstRADA, Procurator and out of the reach of the works of Cadiz,

General of the Principality of Asturins, and having refused to listen to any terms, I made the following Proposition to the have great satisfaction in reporting that the Supreme Council

Spanish gin and mortar boats, and the batThe general council of the principality of teries erected for this purpose, on the Isle of Asturias do not delay a moment in making Leon, and near Fort Louis, commenced known to the public tbe daily proofs they hostilities against the French ships, at three receive of the friendship of the English o'clock in the afternoon of the gih, and the government and nation, who in order the firing continued without interruption on better to enable it to supply all our wants, both sides till night. It was renewed on the have promptly sent to this capital a military part of the Spaviards on the morning of the committee, composed of three officers of 1011, and partially continued till two, when distinction, who, this morning, presented a flag of truce was hoisted by the French, themselves before the supreme council, not but the terms proposed being inadmissible, only to assure us, that all the supplies and the Spagiards intend io recommence hostili

which we pointed out to them, ties with an additional battery, in the eastmight be daily expected in our ports, but ward of Fort Louis, consisting of thirty 24also to offer in the name of their govern- pounders.-Adiniral Purvis and myself ment, to this principality, and to the rest wished to have co-operated in this attack, of the Spanish nation, all other assistance but the Spaniards, feeling themselves conti. we might stand in need of; to send its dent in their own force, have declined our troops, money, arms, ammunition, and offers of assistance.-The Supreme Council other warlike stores, and to make a com- of Seville have nominated commissioners, mon cause with us, in order that we might and applied last night for passports, and a be able to repel and destroy the common frigate to convey them to England, and ihey enemy. That generous nation deserves the

are also equally anxious to send feluccas with utmost gratitude on our part; but as it dispatches to South America. - information offers its protection to all the provinces having been received that a small Trench which defend the good casue, it will know corps was assembling at Tavira, with a view on the other hand, how to employ all its of entering Spain by the River Guadiana, power against those provinces, wnich, guided we have been requested to proceed against by a pernicious selfishness or apparent this corps, and either to attack them on the timidity, are forgetful of their duty, in the coast, or endeavour to prevent the further present critical circumstances in which the prosecution of their plans against Spain. I country is placed, do not endeavour in

accordingly propose to sail immediately for imitation of the real patriots, to defend the this object, Lord Collingwood approving glorious cause, aod shake off a disgraceful of it.-Adiniral Purvis kuad already detached yoke. The supreme council think it right three ships of war off the mouth of the to declare lo the public, that they felt the Guadiana, and has offered every other nelivelieşt emotions of gratitude and respect, cessary assistance, wluch Lord Collingwood when they heard the commissioners give has since confirmed. them the assurance, that it was their anxious Letter from General Morla, Captain-Gewish to shed the last drop of their blood neral of Andalusia and Governor of Ca. tighting with our brethren, in defence of diz, addressed to their Ercellencies ddm. the common cause. --- ALVARO FLOREZ Purvis and Major-General Spencer. ESTRADA.-Oviedo, the 3uth June, 1808. Admiral Rossilly, as your Excellencies

And it having been resolved, that the will observe by the annexed copy, has propreceding proposition be printed and circu- posed to disarai, but upou conditions which lated through all the districts of the prin- i thonght were inadmissible. Whatever. cipality, we communicated it also to you may be his terms of surrender, I shall in no for your inform?tion. God keep you many manner deviate from my promise; it is years in his holy guard. -- Ignacio Llorez therefore necessary that I should have your VALDEE. JUAN ARGUELLES TERIL, Re- consent, as I have already said in my first presentative and Secretary.-Omedo, tke conference with Brigadier-General Sunith 301h June, 1808.

and Captain Sir Joho Gore, to whom I have

pledged myself with simplicity and good A Dispatch, together with inclosures, from faiih. - It will afford me considerable satis.

Major-General Spencer, Cadiz, June 12, faction to consult with your Excelloncies on


all occurrences, incidents, and circumstances, for the attack.-Nothing opposes the indiconducive to our coinnon advantage, and vidual esteem entertained for your Excelcontrary to the interests of the common lency, by your faithful servant,-(Signedjenemy.-Nothing gives me more real plea- Tuomas MORLA.--Cadiz, June 11. sure than the absolute confidence of your

(To le continued) Excellencies in my candour and sincerity, with which I remain your Excellencies' most DENMARK AND SWEDEN.-Observations on affectionate and devoted servant,-(Signed) the Answer published at Stockholm 10 the Thomas MORLA.- Caidim, June 11, 1808. Danish Declaration of War :-- from the Letter from Admiral Rossilly, addressed to Copenhagen Gazette. Gen. Morla, dated on board the Admiral's The king of Sweden must have little reship, Hero Bay, oj* Cadiz, June 11, spect for his people, if he can suppose them 1808.

to be so unacquainted with the events of our Captain-General,- Obliged to defend time, that he may be permitted to confound myself on account of the inquietude inspired effects wiih their causes, by representing the into the people of this province by my im- alliance of Denmark with France as a cause posing attitude, I yesterday, in order to tran- of the present war, when it is to be consia quillize them, proposed to your Excellency dered, as all Europe knows, as a consequence to quit the Bay. In case the English can- of the treacherous attack of England. The not accede to ibis proposal, I suggest the king of Sweden thinks he cau so blind the idea of disembarking my means of attack, eyes of the Swedish nation, that he can and keeping my ships' companies on board ; make thein believe that the war in which no colours shall be displayed on my squa- Sweden is engaged, is a defensive war, dron. Hostages shall be given for our se- whereas, it is an offensive one, which it has curity, our sick, and all the French people cost the king of Sweden much trouble to in the province, with their national and in- procure, as he has done all in his power to dividual property. Hostages will be equally kindle its flames. The difference, the very given on my part. The refreshments, wa- great difference, between the policy of our ter, and provisions necessary for my squa- government and that of the king of Sweden dron, shall be provided on my paying for has been, that the former has with the greatthem, as has hitherto been done. In short, est care endeavoured to secure to its people I shall demand no conditions but those which the blessings of peace ; while the latter ap: are necessary for iny honour and that of the pears only to bave had for his object to sacri. people serving under my orders, and as are fice the blood of his subjects, bring on the compatible with the public tranquillity. De- calamities of war, and to lay waste their prived by my proposal of the means of de- peaceable habitations. All see with surprise fence against the exterior enemy, I demand the king of Sweden, whose constant restlesssecurity against them.

ness, and whose false policy has extended Answer from General Morla to Admiral the iheatre of war so far to the north, yet Rossilly.

represents himself as the sovereign who Excellent Sir, Admiral Rossilly,-In an- offered peace and tranquillity to the swer to certain proposals and official demands Baltic and its coasts. But he has rentransmitted by your Excellency, which, al- dered his love for peace too manifest for though dictated by your honour, are unques- such an offer to be confided in tionably incompatible with mine, as must After having made every exertion, for be evident to your Excellency, I have to a series of years, to become involved in a acquaint you, that I cannot accept any terms war, and having at length obtained his object but an unconditional surrender, my honour and shewn that he knew how to enter into and character not allowing me to depart in a war inconsiderately, and how to maintain any way from my promises. I therefore it with fully and obstinacy after he bed inform you, that my orders from the Su- been compelled entirely to abandon the first preme Council being positive with respect theatre of his war, it was believed that true to the surrender of the squadron commanded policy and regard for the welfare of his subby your Excellency, I cannot enter into any jects would have induced him to live in conditions without previously consulting peace and good understanding with his neighthern. It is likewise my duty to consult bours, and to find a refuge in the patience with the English commanders, as without of a magnanimous people, against a storm their consent, I cannot compromise myself, which he himself had raised. His sense of -For these reasons, I shall suspend my at- danger on the one hand, and of his feeble. tack, until I have dispatched those two ex- ness on the other, might probably inspire presses; availing myself however of the bim with the wish, to see the Baltic maininterinediate time to prepare other means tained free from a foreign feet. While in Germany he wished to set bounds to the vic- to the holy father, that it was the decided tories of the Emperor Napoleon, and used wisli of his majesty the emperor and king, every endeavour to persuade different courts that be should enier into an offensive and that this was his object, nor would he pledge , defensive league with the other powers of bimself for the tranquilliy aod security of Italy, as had been declared by M. Chamthe Baltic from English ships. Can we pagny to the Cardinal Caprara, by note of place more confidence in one of these pro- the 3d current, the dispatch of the said car." fessions than the cher ? Can it be required dinal has been received, which brought the of Denmark to trust the pacific promises of original note of the above minister.—The England ? Will they be held niore sacred holy father, after baving attentively read and than those given Jast year, at the very considered the said document, has ordered moment when an attack was intended? Cardinal Gabrielli, first secretary of state, A sovereign can have little respect for the to make known to your excellency his hotruth, who can say to his nanon, whose line;s's sentiments on its contents; begindanger and sufferings are the only cos- ning with that which forms the cardinal sequences of an alliance with England, point among all the others. His holiness • I have concluded an alliance with England has seen with pain, that even the final proto obtain the means of defence for Sveden.” position therein contained of the offensive Was Sweden then in danger ? Who threa- and defensive league, should be accompatened Sweden with an attack ? Against nied with the threat of depriving him of his whom was this protection and aid necessary! temporal dominions in case of his non-comEvery Swede of sense knows, as well as all pliance. If worldly considerations bad at all Europe, that all his losses, and all the influenced the conduct of the holy father, dangers that threaten him, are the con- he would, from the first, have yielded to sequence of this alliance with England which the wish of his majesty, and not have exno self-defence rendered necessary. Had posed himself to suffer so many calamities : this alliance not existed, Sweden would but the holy father is regulated alone by the still have possessed Pomerania, would consideration due to his duty and his constill have possessed Finland, and the coun- scierice, both have prevented him from agreetry would not have been a prey to fa- ing to the federation, and they equally hin. mine, and all the misery which war brings der him from consenting to the offensive. i with it. Were all the offers actually made and defensire league, which differs but in to the King of Sweden, which he has signi name; its nature, howerer, does not except fied were made, England is much indebied any prince, to whom the pope, according to him for not accepting them ; but the to the circumstances of the times, might Swedish nation is not. And if it were pru- not become an enemy-His holiness feels, dence not to accept some of these offers, it is moreover, that this article, far from jm. to be regretted that they could not induce proving, detiacts from his situation. In the . bim to depart from an alliance that must articles presented to Cardinal de Bayan, the certainly have the most destructive con- federation was proposed as alone against hesequences to his country.---Had the King of retics and the English. But this is coi chied Sweden seen the true interest of himself and in general terms, pointing out no people as his country, the North would have preserved an enemy, yet excluding vo government, peace, Sweden would have still poss: ssed no nation, from the contingency of becomPomerania and Finland, Denmark her fleet ing one. If, then, bis holiness declined and tranquillity, and England her honour. from conscientious motives to be a party to All these losses are the consequences of the that federation, so is he equally withheld policy of the King of Sweden. bas Sweden been warned by the Powers of not merely bind himself to a defence, but Europe? Had we received such 'warning, to an aggression. Then would be seen themiour fleets would have been in safety, and nister of the God of peace placing himself in ready, if necessary, to guard, in a state of perpetual wartare; Thenj would junction with our northern brethren, the safety be seen their common father in arms against of our seas from the tyrants of the ocean. his children, and the head of the church

exposing himself, by his own act, to a deThe Pope-Answer of his Eminence Car- privation of his spiritual connection with

dinal Gabrielli, firsi Secretury of State, ihe catholics of those powers against which to the nole of his Excellency M. Champag. the league would make it imperative on bim ny. Addressed to M. de Fevre, Chargé to act hostilely. How then can his boliness d'affaires from the Emperor of France, shake off bis power and natural character, datert April 19, 1808.

and sacrifice, as must be the consequence, Atter your excellency had made known the interest of religion --His holiness,

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