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their head, for having a leading direction in have at all times an able deputy to an herediaffairs of state, and with authority of apypointment and dismission, for keeping such ent term of years by the legislature, somecouncil to their duty.

what in the same manner as a president is If, in the present state of things, the su- elected by the federal legislature of America. preme junta should, in the first instance, ap- While there should be no king, or during a point such a council, to consist of as many king's illness, or minority, or infirmity of members as there are departments of state, any kind, the regent could entirely supply and elect a regent, to hold his office until his place; or if a king were present and ca. he might be confirmed or superseded by a pable of appearing, to him might be resigned national legislature ; and should themselves the throne, the canopy, the regalia of every exercise in the interim all the functions of kind, with all the pride, pomp, and cir. such legislature, the bappiest results might cumstance of royalty, while in the performbe expected. But ought a regent bimself, ance of all acts of state, he should be at. who is to represent an absent king, to be in tended by his deputy, who should not only his person, like the king he represents, in- be the mouth-piece of bis royal principal, violable and unresponsible? Here is another but with responsibility. What the incondelicate and perhaps difficult question. For veniences of such a practice might be, I do overcoming this and all such difficulties, it not foresee; but various advantages are obis to be hoped the junta will begin their great vious. The defective education of berediwork at the right end, and proceed accor- tary princes, their rices or imbecilities would ding to the order of nature, doing completely no longer, as it should seem, affect the deswhat they do at all. Let them in the first tiny of vations, or entail on them the greatest instance organize a perfect militia. Then calamities. In respect of talents and virtues, let them constirule a legislature on a model for beneficial goverument, the probability dictated by the principles of liberty. In or- would be infinitely greater, that they should dering the elections of the people, they will be found in a regent so to be elected, iban in then find the previous organization of the ne born to a throne. The arguments against militia and the enrolments of the people to electire kings I know would be applied that end, if well contrived, of incalculable against such an elective regent; but until use towards a free choice of representatives, The objectors should shew me in the former and attended with such dispatch and perfec- constitution of Poland, or any other elec: re tion, that the elections throughout all Spain monarchy, the same scurities for a peaceful may be completed at any time in six hours election, where real freedom was enjoned, or less. Let them but carry into execution and where real merit was sure of a prefere these fundamentals, and with the necessary ence, as I shall be able to shew world lethe foresight for the permanence of their work; case in the election now proposed. I shalt then all difficulties touching an executive continue to think the suggestion deserves the power will vairish, and they may easily make serious consideration of ihe Spanish juata ; their kings inoffensive while they make in- who now have to act for a nation that has violable, conditions which doubtless cught to groaned under three centuries of hereditary go hand in hand.

despotisn. And notwithstanding, Sir, your But it may be worth their while to consi

objections to Mr. Jefferson, I must needs der, whether a regency may not be now so think that the usual declamation against elecmodelled, as to make with advantage a per- tive kingdoms has lost much ot iis force, manent part of executive government, even since the sovereign of so great a country as when they may see a king of “the reigning North America has now so peaceably, and,

family" again eated on the throne; an upon the whole, so very beneficially, for event apparently at a considerable distance.

above thirty years, been raised to supreme The great, when placed in dignified and lu- power by the suffrages of the people he was crative offices of any kind, are generally con- to govern ; under a system which seems to tent with the trappings and the emoluments, exclude the possibility of placing the reios while the real duties are done by their depu- l of government in the hands of a man withties. Even kings are very subject thus to out experience, an honourable character, and administer a government in the person of the reputation of ability. favourite; and with this disadvantage, that

I am Sir, your obedient servant, the depuiy is not always selected for his ho

J. CARTWRIGHT. nesty or fitness to govern. Possibly, there-Enfield, Oct. 18, 1808. fore, when the fundamentals of ihe state should have been taken care of as suggested, EX POSITION OF THE PRACTICES AND MAit might prove no inconvenient practice, to 1 CRINATIONS WHICH LED TO THE USUR





PATION OF THE CROWN OP SPAIN, AND spontaneous will, and that you had before THE MEANS ADOPTED BY THE EXPEROR determined upon it. You yourself told it to

your beloved brother, adding, at the same ECUTION :

PEDRO CEVALLOS, tine, that the signature which your majesty FIRST SECRETARY OF STATE AND

had put to the decree of abdication, was the PATCHES TO HIS CATHOLIC MAJESTY, happiest transaction of your life; and final

FERDINAND VII (Continued from p. 672.) ly, your majesty told me personally three Will your majesty permit me to remind you, days afterwards, that I should pay no attenm that no alarm need have been given by troops tion to any assertion of the abdication being entering as friends and allies, but on the con- involuntary, inasmuch as it was, in every trary, that it ought to inspire additional respect, free and spontaneous.--My supconfidence? Your majesty will likewise posed hatred to France in no respect apo permit me to observe, that the orders given peared by my conduct : the contrary will to your majesty, were for a journey with

appear by my actions, of which I will give the royal family to Seville, and the troops a rapid narrative. Your majesty bad scarcewere to keep open that road. There was ly abdicated the crown in my favour, before no person who was not persuaded that this I addressed various letters from Aranjuez to was for the transport of your majesty and the emperor of the French, which are so the royal family to America. Your majesty many proofs that my principles, with respect also published a decree to quiet the minds of to the relations of friendship and strict alyour subjects in this particular; but as all liance happily subsistiog between the two preparations were made, and it was mani. states, were the same that your majesty had festly seen, that the coast of Andalusia was inspired me with, and had yourself inviolao see the royal family assembled, despair bly observed. My journey to Madrid was took possession of the public mind, and the

one of the strongest proofs that I could give movement of Aranjuez was the consequence. to his imperial and royal majesty of the anThe part I took in it your majesty knows, limited confidence I placed in him, since which was no other than by your command, Prince Murat bad entered Madrid the day to go to protect from the fury of the people before with a great part of his army, and the the object of their hatred, because he was city being garrisoned, it was the same as if believed to be the proposer of the journey. I had delivered myself into his hands,

Let your majesty ask the emperor of the During two days of my residence in the French, and his imperial majesty will no capital, I was informed of the particnlar donbt tell you what he said to me in a letter correspondence of your majesty with the that he wrote to me at Vittoria, viz. that the emperor of the French, and I found that mative of his imperial and royal majesty your majesty had recently solicited a princess was, to induce your majesty to make some of his family to connect me with it, and 10 refornys, and to separate from your person insure more effectually in this way the near the prince of Peace, whose influence was union and alliance which was to subsist bethe cause of every calamity:--The universal tween the two states. Accommodating my-, satisfaction that his arrest produced through- self entirely to these principles, and to the out the whole nation, is an evident proof of wish of your majesty, I wrote a letter to the truth of what the emperor declared. As your majesty, requesting the princess in to the rest, your majesty is the best witness marriage.--I sent a deputation to Bayonne that in the midst of the commotion at Aran- to compliment, in my name, his imperial juez, not a word was whispered against and royal majesty. A short time afterwards, your majesty, nor against the person of any I induced my beloved brother, the Infant one of the royal family; on the contrary, Don Carlos, to set off, that he might pay they applauded your majesty with the great- his respects to the emperor on the frontiers. est demonstrations of joy, and professions Not content with this, I myself left Madrid, of fidelity to your august person. On this on the faith of the assurances given me by account, the abdication of the throne which the ambassador of his imperial majesty, the you made in my favour, surprized every grand duke of Berg, and general Savary, body, and myself among the rest ; for no- who had just arrived from Paris, and who body expected it, or would have solicited it. intreated an audience to tell me on the part Your majesty yoarself communicated your of the emperor, that his imperial majesty abdication to all your ministers, enjoining only expected of me to follow the systein them to acknowledge me as their natural with regard to France which your majesty lord and sovereign. You communicated it adopted ; in which case, the emperor would verbally to the diplomatic body, professing acknoyledge me as king of Spain and all that your determination proceeded from your the rest would be forgotten.-Full of rem



liance on these promises, and persuaded that circumstances, and under such conditions, I I should be met by his imperial majesty, I am ready to accompany your majesty to arrived at this cily; and on the same day Spain, there to make my abdication in the that I arrived, verbal propositions were made form expressed. In respect to what your to some of my attendants, quite different majesty has said of not wishing to return to from those which had been before sug- Spain, with tears in my eyes I i oplore yot, gesied, which neither my honour, my con- by all that is most sacred in bearen am science, nor my duty would permit me io earth, that in case you do rot choose to re concur in, since the Cortes had sworn me ascend the throne, you will not leare a to be their prince and lord ;

country so long known to you, in which you they consistent with what I had lately may choose a situation best suited to your sworn, when I accepted the crown that injured health, and where you may enjoy your majesty abdicated in my favour.---| greater comforts and tranquillity of mir: cannot comprebend how any leilers of mine than in any other. Finally, I beg your ma could have come into the possession of the jesty most affectionately, ihat you will să emperor wbich prove my hatred against riously consider your situation, and that you France, since I have given so many proofs will reflect on the evil of excluding our di of my friendship towards him, and have nasty for ever from the throne of Spain, and written nothing to indicate such a disposi- substituting in iis room the imperial fami; tion.- A copy of the protest had been lately of France. This step we cannot take with shewn me, which your majesty made to the out the express consent of all the individuals emperor, in the nullity of the abdication ; who have, or may have, a right to the and yet, when I arrived in this city, and crown ; much less without an equally ex. i asked you respecting it, you told me dis- pressed consent of the Spanish people assertinctly, that the abdication was voluntary, bled in Cortes in a place of security; ar. although not intended to be permanent. I besides, being now in a foreign country, it asked you at the same time, why you did would be impossible that we could persuace not apprize me of this before it was ex- any one that we acted freely; and this corecuted, and your majesty answered, that sideration alone would aonul whatever we you did not choose it; from which may be might do, and might produce the most fatal inferred, that there was no violence used, consequences.–Before I conclude this letter, at least not by me: it could not be known your majesty will permit me to say, that the that your majesty intended to resume the counsellors, whom your majesty calls per: reins of government : on the contrary, you fidious, have never advised me to derogas told me, that you neither would reign, por from the love, respect, and honour tiui! return into Spain. - In the letter that I had have always professed to your majesti, the honour to pat into the hands of your whose valuable life I pray God to presen: majesty on this account, I signified my dis- to a happy and good old age.- 1 cast myseli position to renounce the crown in your fa- at your majesty's royal feet, your most duvour, when the Cortes should be cor vened ; tiful son,-FERDINAND.—Bayonne, May 1, and if not convened, when the council and 1808. deputies of the kingdom should be assem- No. X.-Letter from the King to his Father bled; not because I thought this was ne

Charles IV cessary to give effect to the renunciation, Venerable Father and Lord-I deposite but because I thought it convenient to avoid in the royal hands of your majesty on the injurious novelties, which frequently occa- 1st current, the renunciation of the crown sion divisions and contentions, and io have in your favour. I have believed it to be every thing attended to which respected obligatory upon me to modify the renuncia- . your majesty's dignity, my own honour, tion by sucli conditions as were agreeable to and the tranquillity of the realın.-If your the respect due to your majesty, to the trsomajesty should not choose to reign in per- quillity of my dominions, and to the pre


in your royal name, or in servation of my honour and character. It my own; for nobody but myself can repre- is not without great astonishoient, that I sent your person, possessing as I do, in my have seen indignation produced in the royal own favour, the decision of the laws, and the mind of jour majesty, by modifications cic will of the people ; vor can any other person tated by prudence, and called for by the have so much interest in their prosperity.- love that I bear to my subjects. To your majesiy, I repeat again, that in such

(To be continued.)

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Is is the duty of episy body of men, who hereafter shall address or petition the king for inquiry into the causes of the Convention, to support the Cory of London. 705)

1706 TO THE FREEHOLDERS AND INHABITANTS a short Jump of clay; a lump of fresh or pa *., of HAMPSHIRE.

of fair or dark, colour; or whether it was GEXTLEMEN,

called Cobbelt or by any other name ; this Well! we have had our meeting, and I was of no consequence. It was the princiam confident, that, though my, wishes did ple, the vit:sl principle that was of importno! entirely prevail, our example will have a ance. That principle did coinpletely trigout effi-ci from one end of the kingdom 10 umph, and in the triumph I see, and I the other.

hope you sie, a prospect of better days; a From the circumstance of there being prospect of days when this county will not three gentlemen from London, present at be trampleri uuder topt by men, and particuthe meeting, for the express purpose of tak. Jarly one wan, who have nothing but what ing duwn and publiling an account of the ther have derived from the public purge, proceedings, a circumstance at which no one nothing but what has been squeezed olil vi

more surprized than myself, for, I the fruits of our labour. really thought ihat we were held in low much Hiving spoken of party, I think it necorlea:pt to be thought wority of any thing cessary io say, that I saw no reason whatlike general attention; from this circuns- ever to impuse party motives, upon this ocstance, (very pleasing io me, I must con- casion, either in the Earl of Northesk, or fess) I conclude, that nearly the wbole of to any of the gentlemen who appeared with what was said and done at the meeting of his lordihip; but, on the contrary, it apyesterday will have been published in the peared io me, that they were over-anxious to daily newspapers, before ibat which I au avoid asery thing that might have the apnow writing can possibly issue from the paralife of processing from party motives. press.

If this be the case, the report, as so The mouth is, 1!t, as things siand at prepublished, will be inserted in this sheei, sent, ilir: ww!!!, in ac.s ie h's, be woand, therefore, proceeding upou obe opigion thing done, were not those to move, who that the intended publication will take place, b«10ng 10 a party. If, as is the case, the I shall bere contine myself to such observa- whois, or nearly the whole, of the opulent tions as naturally grow out of the preced- men in a comity be notorioas!y of one parts ings at the Shire Hall, and as appear to me the ober, those of the opposition likely to be useful.

party ause call for a meeting, in a case sike First, Gentleinen, I hope you will, with ile !!!p'ers, or, it is evident, that there can me, be delighted at the now established fact, I be no meeting at all. And, therefore, though that, at a numerong and respectable meeting I did not approve of the Addiess moved, of our county, called and marshulled by and finally carried, by Lord Northesk and Nutlemen and Biuronets, the lenders of a his friends, they are fairly entitled to my party lately powerful enough to carry the Sriititide, and I think, 10 the gratitude of two ipembers for the county ; that, ať such the county at large. a meeting, there have appeared one halt, at Thirwo Addresses is ill appear in their lenst, of the persons premenli, ready to sup. proper place in the Rip ri, which wil port a proposition, coning from one, who beiertanto subjoined; and, Genteme:), I neither has nor wishes to trave, prevencions beg yor! carefully to compare them wille to any rank other 15:10 bit of Yeoman!! ; each other, and, when you have so cone, and who cane before that meeting 1700- let each put it to his own heart, s!pportert by any iniërest order than that whellit. Uve one, which I had ihe honour which grew out of the principles be liad to propose to the meeting, is not that of proclaimed: at this face, Gentlemen, lom: which he most approves į wberher the convinced you will, widla we, trel pleantlie principlis there asserted and the sentiments and pride. As to the eilect with reg rd to ibere expressed, are not the principles and myelt I am completely inditterent.

It was

the sentiments that he would fail 1:3) of do consequence who was the persin. vieous atte) wish to see milielpills pievail. Wireider the proposition clue froni a call or There it is one ognjirit, spun which I was



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very intent; namely, that of giving support Hall, a gentlemais, upon whose word It to the City of London; and, Gentlenen, with confidence, assured nie, that dir. Go. though the Address and Petition proposed nier uished anxiously for peace. It is ver; by me was, at last, not formally carriei, hard tor one man to know the heart of ancthe point of decision was so nice, that I ther; but, considering the character ef mi" hope Mr. Waithman and those who have so informant, I beliere the fact ; that is to say, nobly supported him will consider, that I believe, thai, in this particular case, $03 this county, at least, has done its duty. limenis of humanity prevail over interet. I The Address proposed by I ord Northesk do not siate this merely as an argimærtili was, I myself believed corried at last; admission: I reaily lelive the faci. ben but, it was not wil after many persons, Gentlemen, wliat las this singular and is

who came from a distance and who were senal fictlo do with what I had the honou anxious to get home, had retired erder to submit to you upeitlies subject? I made :: the full persuasion, that the incision laul asnertion as to Mr. Girvier's feelings. / taken place in tara ur of the 'Address and was a conclusion, which I drew from undeo: Petition proposed by me.

abie promise's. I stated the fact, that it this point solely for the purpose of showing aniount of this gentleman's revenue *** the Ciry of London what honourable sup- proportion to the boilede of the ariportley had in Hamp bire ; and, for the odoljilt: der Wirunds in that arn same pourposes, I add, tat, at the reading 11:11, llarejore 10's hitral to supke, of hose quits of day Address alii Peritives

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suisb tir a lo: Lui which were literüly copied frut it's still 0,11..!!Cilvf

!!ki, I am not a Resolution of the 27th of Ociniai

il!ent in the hands meeting gave particular marks os pause; the

1st eting, tiiat itu while (and I challenge a denial of the fact)! in ni JUALA LSCSy long list of not one single mark of applause was given, 301.5 / 5 bied, my thjei e being to explom hirdly a sound or a n.ovement or a lork of the mynry winy so way people hauteen satisfaction was perceived, at the reading of found, in suine places, io oppose an applica 'thie cold and courtly Address which con- tion for iniquiry into a transction so ciear. tended for the preference. No, Gentle- calculated io lengthen the duration of 1.6 men, this Address did not speak ile lain- war; to give such list ihere was not time: guage of your hearts. It did not convey I was obliged to contine mysell to a part to the throne an expression of the feelings of cular instance; and that of Mr. Gant a people sensible that they bave made sacri. was selecierl, isi, because it was a strik fices unparalleled, and that those sicrifices one ; 2nd, because it was a case which die hare only furnislied the means of purchasing ved additionel interest from our knowka national dishonour; the feelings of a people of the person ; and 3rd, because there : disappointed and insulted; the feelings of a no doubt of some of his friends being pre people, who, for their liberality and long- sent to say whatever could be said in ans št. enduring patience, have been paid with new I should, in print, hare pointed out the burthens and with unprecedented scorn. flagrant case, lung ago; but, locally, 1!:

No: this Address did not express those Garnier was a very near neighbour; 'feelings; and, ny decided opinion is, that, I felt reluctant to inake so near a neighina wlien the noble bord and the gentlemen, a subject in the Register. Theit was, in who proposed and supported it, shall have deed, no solid reason for this; but, i taken time to re-peruse and re-consider, they thought, that some persons might think ibé will feel great sorrow, not, I hope, unmixed I look ad:antage of iny great means of pcbwith some degree of shanie, ihat, for the licity to assail iny neigi.bour. Sometime o sake of an Address such as this, they reject- oiher a sense of public duly would bei ed that wbich was proposed by ine, and overconie this consideration; but, baviin which, as they could not fuil to perceive, had an opportunity to state the fact, in a meeting the hcarts of all, while theirs had only the of the county, where I was pretty certi: voices of a part, of the ineeting.

would be, and where I saw, many it Upon the subject of the vast sums receiv. the friends and relations of Mr. Gurier, ed out of the public money by Mr. Garnier that opportunity was not to be neglected. of Wickham, as salary and profits of Apo

Now, Gentlemen, thougb webc thecary General !n the Army, though as ihe lieve, tbat, contrary to the conclusical Committee of the House of Commons stale, that I drew, Mr. Garnier dues wish | he resides in the country and meddles not pince, I beg leare to remind you, that M with the business; upon this subject I think Garnier and his family, who are neller it right to state, that, as we were lonving the few in number 13or weak in means, hair)

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