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successful, he cries : “ Nothing is done with Portugal, I entertained the hope that hilst any thing remains to be done ; . and he would not abandon the sontinents of essuintly his troops march on to farther con- teem and friendship which he had always lest and take rest only when their enemy manifested towards me. But when I perurterly annihilated. We, on the contrary, ceived ibat his troops advanced towards my ways take time to surfeit ourselves with joy capital, I felt the urgency there was for cold congratulations; the enemy is always lecting my army round my person, to pretive, and after a due portion of expectation sent myself before my august ally in a manid conjecture the public is astonished with ner worthy of the king of Spain. I should e information that our first success not have removed all his doubts, and have seiving been followed up, it has been either cured my best interests. I gave orders to yunterbalanced by some success of the ene- my troops to leave Portugal and Madrid, and y, or tarnished by some want of proper I united them in various parts of my mo. certion on our own part.- You, Sir, were narchy; not to abandon my subjects, but mongst those who approved of our proceed-, honourably to support the glory of my gs last year towards Denmark. Ji was at- throne. Beides, my extensive experience mpted by men of high political considera- convinced me that the emperor of the French on in this country, to maintain that those might very well entertain wishes conforma. roceedings alienated from us the affection's ble to his particular interest, and to the po. f the continent. Sir, it was no such thing. I licy of the vast system of the Continent, 'he polisicians on the continent, many even but which might be inconsistent with the ho did not wish well to this country, were interests of my house. What was, in suci nanimous in exclaiming : “ At last the En. circumstances, your conduct ? You introfish are roused from their lethargy; at last duced disorder into my palace, and infused ley assume the tone and attitude that be. a spirit of mutiny into my body guard, against mes them; we shall now see, at least in my person. Your father was your prisoner; le north of Europe, something like a coup- my prime minister, whom I had appointed Tpoise to Buonaparte's overbearing anibi. and adopted into my family, covered with on." They admired the wisdom of our blood, was driven from one danger to anlan, and would liave admired the energy other. You dishonoured my grey hairs f the execution, if they had nol sein you despoiled me of the crown, possessed s in the month of September drawing with glory by my ancestors, which ihey had a our horns, and hiding ourselves within preserved without a slain. You seated youror shells as if afraid of the cold of October self upon my throne, and placed yourself at nd November. They then thought that we the disposal of the people of Madrid, and of iad put ourselves to a great expence, made foreign troops, who were then entering the n amazing uproar in Europe, and subjected capital.---The conspiracy of the Escurial bad rur moral character as a nation, at least to already accomplished its purposes. The acts ome sort of impuration, without obtaining of my administration were brought into iny object adequate to so much risk. -- If the

public contempt. Old, and oppressed by Conventions, and the inquiry that is to be in- infirmity, I was not able to surmount this itituted concerning them, should lead to a new misfortune. I resorted to the emperor correction of this most capital defect in our of the French, not as a king ar the head of system of foreign policy, I shall think that my troops, surrounded by the pomp of the disgrace, which they have otherwise royalty ; but as an unbappy and abandoned brought upon us, is not without its counter- prince. I bave found refuge a:id protection Failing advantage. - I am, yours, &c.-AN in the midst of his cap. I owe to him my ENGLISHMAN.-Oct. 19, 1803.

own life, that of the queen, and that of tbe

prime minister. I have arrived at last at ExposiTION OF THE PRACTICES

Bayonne, and you have so conducted this negociation, that every thing depends upon the mediation and protection of this great prince. - The idea of resorting to populas

agitation would send to the ruin of Spain, BGUTION:

CEVALLOS, and expose yourself, my kingilom, my subFIRST SECRETARY OF STATE

jects, and iny tumily, io the most horrible PATCHES TO CATHOLIC MAJESTY, catastrophes. My heart has been fully unPERDINAND VII. (Continued from p. 610.) folded to the emperor ; he knows all the

While these occupied the right bank of injuries I have received, and lie violence the Ebro, and appeared to have for their that has been done to me; he has declared object the maintaining the cornmunication to me, that you shall never be acknowledged

AND MA

CHINATIONS WHICH LED TO THE L'SUR-
PATION OF THE CROWN OF SPIIN, AND
THE MEANS ADOPTED BY THE EMPEROR

OF THE FRENCH TO CARRY IT INTO EX

BY DOY

PEDRO

AND

DIS

HIS

as king, and that the enemy of his father its neglect. I have sacrificed the whole of can never acquire the confidence of foreign my life to my people ; and in the advance! states. He has, in addition to this, shewn age to which I have arrived, I shall do nome leiters written with your own hand. thing in oppositioa to their religion, their which clearly shew your aversion to France, tranquillity, and their happiness. I hara -Things being thus situated, my rights are reigned for them; I will constantly accorg clear, and my duties are much more so. It myself for their sakes ; I will forget all my is incimbeni on me to prevent the shedding sacrifices ; and when at last I shall be coaof the blood of my sabjects, to do nothing vinced that the religion of Spain, the inteat the conclusion of ny career, which shall grity of her provinces, her independence, and cury fire and sword into every part of Spain, her privileges are preserved, I shall descend and reduce it to the inoit horrible misery. to the tomb, forgiving those who have emCertainly, if faithful to your primary obli- bittered the last years of my life. -Dated gations, and to the feelings of nature, you from the imperial palace of Bayonne, called had rejected those perfidious counsels, and the Government Palace, May 2, 1903. placel yourself constantly at my side, for No. IX.-Letter written by King Ferdinand the defe:ce of your father, you had waited VII. to his august Father, in answer the regular course of nature, which would the preceding. have clevated you in a few years to the rank My honoured Father and Lord ;-I reof royalty I should have been able to ceived the letter that your majesty conde conciliaie the poiicy and interests of Spain, scended to write to me, dated yesterday, an with that of all. For six months, no doubt, I will endeavour to answer all the particu. matters have been in a critical situation ; but lars with that moderation and respect which notwithstanding such difficulties, I should is due to your majesty.-Your majesty have obtained the support of my subjects ; speaks, in the first place, with respecto I shculd have availed myseit of the weak the alteration in your political conduct to means which yet remained to me, of the wards France, after the peace of Basle ; and moral aid which I should have acquired, in truth, I believe there is no individual meeting always my ally with suitable dig. Spain who has complained of it; rather all nity, to whom I never gave cause of com- were unanimous in praising your majesty for plaint ; and an arrangement would have your confidence in, and fidelity to the prin been made which would have accommodated ciples you had adopted. Mine, in particu the interests of my subjects to those of my lar. were entirely similar to your own; and family. But in tearing from my head the I have given irrefragable proofs of it frod crown, you have not preserved it for your- the moment when your majesty abdicated self; you have taken from it all that is au- the throne in my favour.--Had the affair gust and sacred in the

eyes of mankind. the Escurial, which your majesty states, or Your behaviour with respect to me, your ginated in the hatred with which my wif intercepted letters, have put a brazen barrier inspired me against France, your ministers between yourself and the throne of Spain, my beloved mother, and your royal set and it is neither your own interest nor that been examined with all the legal forms, of the country that you should reign in it. would have evidently proved the contrary, Avoid lighting a fire which will unavoidably Notwithstanding I had not the least in cause your complete ruin, and the degrada- fluence, and no liberty beyond the shew of tion of Spain.--I am king by the right given it, - guarded, as I was, by doine tics whom me by my forefathers : my abdication was you put round me, yet the eleven counsel the result of force and violence; I have no- lors chosen by your majesty were unani thing to receive froin you ; nor can I con- mously of opioion, that there was no ground sent to the convocation of the cortes, an for the accusation, and that the supposed additional absurdity, suggested by the in- criminals were innocent.--Your majesty experienced persons who attend you.--/ talks of the distrust created by the entrance have reignel for the happiness of my sub. of so many foreign troops into Spain; and jects, an i I do nut wish to bequeath thein that if your majesty recalled from Portugal civil war, mutiny, popular juntas, and re- your troops, and united those that were ia volution. Every thing should be done for Madrid, at Aranjuez, and its neighbourhood. the people, and notbing by the people : to it was not to abandon your subjects, but 10 forget this maxim, were to become the ac- support the glory of the throne. complice of all the crimes that must follow

Po be continued.)

Printed by Cox and Baylis, Great Queen Street ; published by R. Bagshaw, Bryoges Street, CoveniGa.iken, whwe koumer Numbers inwy be bad: sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Mitre, PallMalle

VOL. XIV. No. 19.)

LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1903. [PRICE 100.

* Thac it is the RIGYT'o the subject to petition the king.... And they” (the people of England)
* do claim, demand, and insist ripor, alt and singular the premises” (the right of petitioning being only a
part), * as their urloubted rights I liberries; and that no declarations, judaments, doings, or proceedings,
" to the prejudice of the people in any of the strid premises, ought in any wise to be drawn hereafter iniy
“consequence or example."--Bill of Rights.
673]

[674 TO THE FREEHOLDERS AND OTHER INHA- those who are invested with the care and BITANTS OF HAMPSHIRE.

superintendance of our rights and interests; GENTLI MEN,

if onr feelings are to be siiled; it we have It is with great pleasure, and with some not the right, or, which is the same thing, degree of pride, that I have seen, in the if re are deterred from exercising the right, public papers,

a notification, that, on of demanding justice to be done upon those Wednesday, the 2d of November, a meeting vbo have been the cause of what we com. of the Nobility, Gentry, Clergy, Freehold plain of; if this be the case, there is nothing ers and other Inhabitants of this county, is in our situation which distinguishes it from to be held at the city of Winchester, for the that of slaves. For, Gentlemen, what is purpose of taking into consideration the ihe great characteristic of slavery? It is propriety of a perition to the king for an this; that though the slave feel loss and ver. Inquiry into the causes of the Convention, ation, he dares not openly complain. We lately entered into by cur gonerals in Pür- are in the daily habit of speaking of Buofugal. That this meeting will be well at- napsite as a despot, and of the prople of tended as to numbers, and that there will France as his slaves; and, in so doing, we se present gentlemen able and willing to are not, I am convinced, guilty of injustice. point out what ought to be done, there can But, what are the proo's, which we presess, je no doubt'; but, as it appears to me, that or pretend to possess, of the despoism of I few previous remarks, with respect to the Buonaparte iod of the slavery of the French bjects of he *tag, ny teowards p0

1:"1121 are think 0,5 poi, in - roiucing unanimity, and thereby adding we aswert, wiibout proof where with to sup

orce to the decision, I beg leave to offer you port our assertions, we are guilty of false. by sentiments upon the subject.

bood; and falsehood is not less falsehood, Gentleinen, the sorrow and indignation merely because it is uttered against an enemy. the Convention in Portugai have been, What are these proofs, then? Not that he nd are, more general than any feeling ever has no parliament, for he has a legislative jas been known to be in this country, witha assembly as well as we; not that, in his n the memory of the oldest man living, legislative assembly, his niinisiers have al. yith the sole exception, prhaps, of the ways a decided majority, tor, you know orrow which was feli ai the death of LORD well, that our king's ministers base the TELSON. That this sorrow and indignation same; not that he can do what he pleases yere not founded in reason no one has at- with his army, appointing, promoting, and empted !o shew us.

There have been at- cashiering the officers at his pleasure, for, empts made, amongst the parties concerned you kuow, that our king los precisely n the transaction, to shift the blame frooi the same power, and that, wher, upon ine to the other; there have been attempty a lite 091on,

011 aftenipt was made made to make us believe that the Convention

! was stiga s not altogether so bad as we thought it; matized as an nilai

"OTOout, there has been nonan bold cough 1.) rives of the crown; nulwa stand forward and as it, that we were

of unce are

not represel??d in weilan sation of fools, who had ali joined in con- gislative assembly, for, there are elections in Jemning that which had in it nothing worthy France as well as in England, and, perhaps, of condemnation.

it would be very difficult to prove, that beIt is clear, then, that the thing itself, the tween those elections and ours there is any. leed which we so universally lament, is a material difference. Well, then, Gentica proper subject of lamentation. It is clear, men, what is the ground, upon which se that our sorrow and our indignation are well charge the people of France with being founded. But, if these feelings of ours are slaves, and what is the proof which we pose o produce nu effect upon the conduct of Sess of the fact ? This ground, is rapiy

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this, that they dare not go to their sovereign and drawers of water. In the present case, with complaints; and, the only proof that those who do pretend to understand military we possess of this fact, is that they do not affairs have not attempted to defend the go to him with complaints. If, therefore, transaction of which we complain ; while we do not complain to the king, when it is some of those persons, who are most actire noterious to the world, that we have so in opposition to our petitioning the king, bitterly complained to one another, will not hare asserted, that one of the generals pr. that world conclude, that we dare not coin- tested against the Convention. But, what plain ; and, upon the same ground that we are their opinions to us? It is sufficient, i call the French people slaves, will not the that the thing appears to us to be matter for world justly inpute slavery to us? No complaint. That is all that is required to matter what be the cause, by which we are justify our complaining ; unless we be conrestrained from complaining; whether it be tent to see and hear only through the eyes the bayonet in the hands of a soldier, or the and ears of those, who appear to thisk that y means of corruption in the hands of a mi- they have a right to treat us as their slaves, nister ; whether it be the dread of death merely because they wallow in laxury upon from the hands of the executioner or from The fruit of our labour. When, but a very the cravings of hunger. The cause matters few months ago, it was thought useful to not, so that the effect be the same ; so that those in power to obtain adiresses to the we are slaves, it matters not whether we king in praise of his speech about Spain and are held in slavery by the force of steel or Portugal, and of the military measures le by that of gold.

intended to adopt with regard to those coun Those who wish to prevent the people tries ; then you were not thought to be from petitioning the king tipon this occa- quite so unfit judges of matters of this sort sion, tell us, that we are not competent then you were called upon to give your opin judges of the matter, upon which we have nions of measures even berore they had taken it upon us to decide. That we are been put into execution. And now, by the not all soldiers is certain, and that very few very same persons, who then so called upon of us, comparatively speaking, would be you, you are told that military operations able to conduct battles and sieges is obvious; and making Conventions are matters abore but, all of us, who are not absolute ideots, your capacity. So that, though you are very know, that when an army is sent abroad at good judges as long as you are disposed a vast expence, the people who pay that ex- praise, you are not fit to judge at all, wbe pence, have a right to expect some services you are disposed to condemn; and, in short from that army; we know, that when one you are to be well-broken dogs in the service army is double the force of another, and of the ministers of the day, at whose comwhen the latter has been beaten by a third niand you are to dash on, come in, stand part of the force of the former, that it is back, give tongue, run mute, creep, cringe reasonable to expect, that the weaker army or lie, dead as a stone, at their feet. Thi ought, very soon, to become captives to the expedition to Portugal, the intention stronger. There does not require any mio undertaking which you were, by the agend litary science to enable us to speak with of the ministers, called upon to praise, has confidence as to these points. If we most cost England as much as the whole amount be generals, or admirals, in order to be able

of one year's poor-rates ; that it has done to form correct opinions, in every case re- horn to England instead of good no man ha lating to mititary and naval affairs, it is the assurance to deny; and yet you are told plain, that we must, in future, hold our that you ought not to call for inquiry into fongues ; and that we have nothing to do the conduct of those who have caused with sucli affairs, but to pay the expences this injury, because you are not competer attending them. Upon the same principle, judges of the inatter. This insolence may we could never, with propriety, complain of show you in what contempt you are beld any measure of the government, however the persons to whom I have so frequently disgraceful or oppressive it might be. If a alluded; and, if you now suffer yourselve treaty were made giving up the Isle of Wight to be builied or wheedled into silence, son to France, we might be told to hold our will convince the world that you are worth peace, seoing that we are not plenipoten- of that contempt. tiaries and secretaries of state ; the chancel- But, there is another ohjection to our for of the exchequer might, upon the same petir oning the king, at ibis time, which principle, bid us be silent upon the subject objection is worthy of your particular pa of taxation; and so on, till we were re. lice, and, I trust you will ibink, of you duoed to the state of mere bewers of wood marked reprobation. It is this: tbate ince the promulgation of the king's answer are " pronouncing judgment without previo the city of London, any further petitions ous investigation.It would be an in-, ur inquiry are unnecessary, seeing that sult to your understandings to pursue the be therein declared his intention to institute illustration ; for there is not a man of you, an inquiry, after which further petitions, who will not clearly perceive, that the ap besides being useless. may seem to imply a plication of the poor humble citizens of lonbt of his sincerity. ---Genilemien, the London was stricily consistent, not only Detition of the city of London was express- with the principles of British justice, but, ed in terms as humble as it is possible for as nearly as the case would permit, with any description of human creatures to make the forms of legal proceedings.--As to ase of towards any earthly being; and the the necessity of this application, the king inswer they receiver coniained as sharp a re- alluded to the trial of General Whitelocke, cuke as any king of England ever gave to and told the poor citizens, that he should žis subjects. The king told them, that it have hoped, that his conduct in that case vas “ inconsistent with the principles of would have convinced them, that their ind, · British justice to pronounce judgment terposition was not necessary to induce him.

without previous investigation ;" and that, to institute inquiry in this case. But, Genthe interposition of the city of London temen, pray mark the distinction. In both could not le necessary for inducing him cases the transaction was reprubated by the

to direct due inquiry to be made.' nation at large; in botli cases the NATION Now, Gentlemen, there was no judgment cosplained of disgrace and inquiry ; but, Ironounced on any one by the petition ofthe not so with the MINISTRY, who, in the.

por cringing Londoners. They only pray. | former case, gave, at once, evident signs d'hat an inquiry might be ordered ; they of their agreement in feeling and opinion uid, what the whole nation had said, that with the nation; whereas, in the latter, ac Convention was disgraceful and injurious case, they gave signs as evident, that they

the country ; they expressed their sorrow disagreed in feeling and opinion with the wat so many English lives and so much nation, and that, though they might not aglish money should have been lost and openly justify the Convention, their intens xpended in vain ; and they humbly im- tion was not to put upon their trial any of lored the king to institute an inquiry into the persons, who had framed or ratified it. be ca:ase of such a calamity, and to bring Upon the arrival of the intelligence, or, at be offenders to justice ; but, they judged least, when the intelligence could no longer

one; they marked out no one for be kept fro:n the public, they made a short unishment; they preten led not to say, and equivocal communica:ion of it to the berber the blame lay with the ministers Mayor of London ; they caused the gens of rihe generals ; they, with the rest of the the Park and Tower io be tired, which, ation, were convinced that blame lay some- as you well know, is the token of joyful bere, and they prayed, in a most humble tidings; they caused an illumination to be: yle, that an inquiry might take place. made at all the ottices and buildings under Was there, in this, Genilemen, any thing their controul; they put us to the expence

inconsistent with the principles of British of candles, coloured lamps, and flambeaux, slice ?. Why, is not this the mode of for the celebration of the event; and, in roceeding in all our courts? The man, short, they did, upon this occasion, exhibit bo thinks himself aggrieved by another. all those marks of joy that were by them exo 129), comes into court, in his own pers. » hibited at the intelligence of the batile of ir by his attorney, and demands that the Trafalgar. -Well, then, Gentlemen, what ledged offender be put uport his trial. The similarity is there in the two cases ? and, emand cannot be refused ; it often hap- | why were the poor citizens of London to be ens, that the party accused is found to be rebuked, because they seemed 10 g:specto inocent; but, no one attempts to say, that that Weilesley and his associates would not de demand is inconsistent with the prin- be brought to trial, without a direct applia iples of British justice; no judge, when cation of the people to the king? Were pplied to for a warrant, a writ, an attach- theý, because Whitelocke was tried for an pent, or citation, ever tells the plaintiff act which the ministers openly lamented, to hat he is come to pronounce jndgment." , conclude that Wellesley would be tried for Vhen any of us apply for a warrant or an act at which these same ministers openly ummons against a thief, or a poacher, we rejoiced ? Poor creatures, bow is it possible, ssert that the person has been guilty of that they could have drawn such a conclue bieving or poaching; yet, the justices ne- sion? There were, inoreover, Gentlemen,

send us away with the rebuke, that we other circumstances to justify this interposin

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