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no proof that it was not strong when Junot defend, and not to assail. This was a most entered it at first, and with you rests the perplexing situation for our army, and Junot onus probandi. I do not purpose to ester would take especial care to increase the difinto a detaile 1 account of the circumtances ficulty to his uimust. Now, bad ine before. under which Junot entered, and took pos

mentioned statements of the inimense session of L bon ; nor do I intend w grote strength of Janot's prosition, and his abunthe Prince ilegeni's Manifesto, and a variety

dant supply of provisions been disproved inof other documents to prove how he could stead of meeting with a confirmation, in have been resisted; and I am not aware of the unqualified assertion, “that Junot could any reason why it may not be admitted, casily have consumed time in a protracted though contrary to the fact, that there was defeuce," it would avail nothing to your noi, at the time Junot entered Portugal, one argument. And unless you convince us that parapet in the whole kingdom, from behind every individual of the public, who naturally wbich resistance could have been made with expected an unconditional surrender was, in greater a ivantage than in the open field, if forming such opinion, convinced that Junot resistance had buen determined on. There had no formidable entrenchments to fly to, Cili, indeed, be no analogy between the si- and no supply of provisions, it will not assist tuation of the French and English armies at you, if you can even prove that Sir Arthur the times they respectively entered the coun- could have marched into Lisbon with no try. But since when did these places be- more obstruction than one of your readers come so very strong ? There is no reason to into Mr. Bagshaw's shop, and would have be astonished; Junot has been in Portugal been as cordially and politely welcomed. long enongh, and h15 not wanted means, You proceed --" Well, then,” say you, without supernatural aid or the interposition “ it be true that Sir Arthur Wellesley, with ofa necromancer, to ereci fortifications, from only 9000 meil, beat the whole of the wliich to di-lodge him by the next arrival “ French force, in spite of all their advanwould require all the skill of English of tages, have we vot a right to expect, nay, ficers, and all the intrepidity of British sol- " had we not a right 1o claim and to dediers. But, Sir, every account since Ju

v mand, at the hands of the commander in not's arrival most fully concurred in re- Portugal, when he had 30,000 men, the presenting him as particularly sedulous in capture or the total destruction of the repairing the old, and erecting new forti. “ French armiy ia Portugal, and if any nafications, and that be had rendered his po

~ tion had any right to expect any thing, sition almost imprezoable; and I never saw

" this nation had a right to expect a result any statement, which tendied in the slightest

" such as here described ?" It is true degree to invalidne their claim to general policy in a general to whom the defence of a belief; a!!, certainly, there were not a few strong place is entrusted, and who has at his individuals who, previous to Sir Arthur's disposal a force more than necessary for its landing, entertained very alarming appre- defence, to march out and attack the army hensions as to the result of the attack, if i advancing to the siege, if the circumstances, such had been found unavoidable. Yon under which he is to niake the attack, are then ask, “Was Junot's army to be fed by such as to justify him in expecting a favourravens?" I cannot inimediately find the pas- able result; and in the event of his sustainsige, but something to this effect. If f you

ing a repulse, reireat to his position is see were as successful in proving that Junot was On the contrary, it would evince a not supplied withi, nor had any means of great want of skill in the general, who procuring provisions for his army, as you are

would march out when his force was scarcely in exposing the boilow and groundless re: sufficient lo garrison the place, where suce sons entertained by cur generals as to the cess was not certain. Junot, in his plan ot impracticability of obtaining a supply for attack on the 21t, and in his resistance at the English army, I should determine not to Roleia, appears to have been perfectly satrouble you with these observations, although tistied that he should succeed. It fortunatethe question, as it respects the public, would ly was not the case, but his retreat was not still remain the side. The newspapers,

prevented. What was :he effect? The Enghowever, furnished us with various accounts lislı army was enabled to blockade him, and of Junot's baving collected a large quantity prevent his incursions into the country; be of provisions; and there was no great reason

could not again meet them in the field; but to believe, that a French army would starve it did not follow that an English army would while there were between 2 and 300,000 | be able to expel bim froin bis foris. A Portuguese inhabitants in Lisbon, people crowd of instances might be collected to whom we went to assist, not to distress, to prove, that men who had been beater in


the field, bad successfully defender a forti- general opinion, that except in the most disfied place; but those of more recent occiar- tressing circunstances, nothing can instify rence, will perlaps be more convincing. our commanders for having acceded to the We have not yet ceased to deplore the fale present Convention; it is, I fear, a Conand admire the courage of the Spaniards, verition which has affixed to the British ardefeated at Rio Seco, and our tongues still my and nation a stigina so indelible, that no vibrate with the praises of the undisciplined event, however favourable, can wholly redefenders of Valencia, Gerová, and Sara- inove it, or prevent its suggesting the most gossa ; places certainly not more formidablo agonizing reflections. We are, bokerer, than the forts and entrenchments of Por- well aware, that great public calamities and tugal. Now, I do not mean to insinuate individual misfortunes, have not unirequentthat our troops could not reduce Junot ; but ly given rise to, or been accompanied by their amounting to 30.000 would not pre

circunstances which, in the progress of vent less bloodshed. Do you believe, that tirre, have very materially contributed to if Lisle, Maestricht, or Brissac, were pro. diminish the pernicious effects apprebended perly garrisoned and commanded, that the at their occurrence; and it is some conso, besieging arniy would experience less loss, Jation, that the people have not suffered if they were ten times the number of the their reputation to be sullied without a mur. blockaded garrison ? We also know, that mur; that the same page of history which in the battle of the 171h, when our armsy records this infamous and insulting Conveo. forced the passes of Roleia, only 0000 men tion, will also relate the virtuous indignation could be brought to bear; and it is proba. felt by a people jealous of their bonour; ble, that it Loison and Laborde had etticted will rouse the lethargic, and animate the their jonction before the attack was made, torpid of succeeding ages, by a glowing de . we should have experienced a very alarm scription of the patriotism which prevailed ing loss., I think no one will deny, that the in every rank ; will detuil the people's re« public had the means of satisfactorily ascer. hement and unceasing cries for vengeance taining that Jhoot, effected his retreat afier on those who dared to degrade their charac. the battle of the 21st; that the places to ter, and debase their dignity. And although which he retired were strong by nature and it is highly probable, that the immediate art; that he had a plentiful supply of pro- consequences of this Conreution will be visions, and that his force afier his defeat highly disastrous, it is not impossible that was still formidable ; and the probability of it may produce some beneficial effects

. I reducing him not much greater than when will shew the world the feelings and chao the forces first sailer, recollecting, that at racter of Englishmen; it will powerful that time it was generally reported and be- instruct our military commanders, that the lieved, that Sir Arthur Wellesley would honour of a nation is not to be surrendered land at Peniche, and immediately invest with impunity. Since the commencement the place. Impressed with the belief of of the French revolution, no treachery These facts, I really cannot see how the however base, no infamy however atrocious public could anticipate the result, such as (and unfortunately many equally, pay, moro they did anticipate, and as you have re- iniquitous than the Convention of Lisbon dated, till the public will declare that condi. may be enumerated), ever produced in the tions might not be granted which would be countries where they happened complaints preferable to the certainty of great loss in, so general and unqualified as in the present the attack of these places, and the chance instance. The consideration of these cir. of failure; till it can be proved that it was cumstances will afford more than a transient tbe public conviction, that our army would gleam amidst the immense gloom; will have been able to continue ibe blockade prove more serviceable than a solitary spar, without much difficuliy, that their services when threatening waves surround. I feel were not wanted in any other quarter; till, confident that I have been considerably tou in short, it can be proved, that the public prolix and tedious, that many of my rewas certain that there were no secret mo- marks are totally unnecessary, and others tives, and those very strong ones, to in- not sufficiently elucidated; but as I have fuence the determination of our comman- not time to condense and arrange them, ders to agree to a conditional surrender. shall leave them to your candid and unpreSo far, I think, you will allow. uncondi- judiced consideration. I cannot, however, tional surrender could not reasonably be ex- conclude without expressing my regret, that pected by the public, and that our com- any circumstances sbould exist which could manders were, so far, prematurely disgracedd; prevent our having, what we certainly very but I most pestecidy copcur with the now iguch wanted, and which you hare energer

tically expressed, " an instance of triumph, | might have been, I should not have called " a proof of victory, which no one could

your attention to them. But will you begainsay." -- bave the honour to re- lieve it, Mr. Cobbelt? in consequence of main, Sir, &c.C.

Mr. Lingham, who in his book, according

to these critics' own account, “ kept quite EDINBURGH REVIEWERS.

“ clear of the least appearance of taction," SIR :--The Edinburgh Reviewers, in Laving characterised the other gentleman her onlky pamphlet of April, 1803, under by a feir expressions not by any means unhe grise of revieising iwo publications, Usual in political controversy, and none of writen by gentlemen, whose names, I be. which, from their analysis of his publicaiere, are wholly hoknown to the public, tion, I think it is pretty clear, were misap

Mr. Rylance and a Mr. Lingham, are plied ; such as "obscure pamphleteer," sleused to enlighten the world with their • unauthorized tool of a party," and the houghts, upon the subject of the late emi. like; I say, will you, Sir, believe it, that ration to the Brazils. Upon this topic, I these worthy disciples of the Whig school, sel no interest in controverting their opi- these pains-taking underlings of the present ions, as they are of course the echo of ihe Opposition, these Scotch preachers of polixeches in parliament, ot that faction upon rical liberty, are actually for lerring loose the boss fortunes their own depend; it being dogs of law upon poor Mr. Lingham, and or ne jecret to any one that the positive amercing himn with fines, penalties, im rerbearing and dogmatical paradoxes, which prisonnient, and the pillory, for having failed ave so peculiarly distinguished the Edin. to acknowledge the eminent consequence of urgh Review, proceed from small this Mr. Rylance and his perfect indepennot of young friends, who hunt after the dence, (v: bich, be it observed, these reviews vol dinners and other good things of those ers themselves impeach) for having dared to complished statesmen, Lords Holland and publish the truth of him, and to speak of enry Petty. The subject, upon which I him as he deserves. They introduce their present address you, Mr. Cobbett, is the whiming complaint, and garbled quotations nguage, which, in the article above-inen- of Mr. Lingham's " abusive language" with oned, these gentlemen have made iise of this sentence : “ Some passages, we are pon the subject of Libel; language betraying pretty sure, would subject him to punishonce the base slavish spirit of which ihey “ inent in a court of justice : ” and having e composed, and the deiermined hostility finished their extracts, they conclude :hich animates them against all the assertors

" We have little doubt that the above pas f the Liberty of the Press. It seems, that sages, are themselves libellous." Is not inis lese authors, whose pamphlets form the pre- monstrous ? Why, the action laiely brought fice of the review, Mr. Rylance and Mr. by the Duke of Bedford's Knighi, (I forget ingham, unfortunately agreed in nothing his name) was nothing to this. Irritated ut in each dedicating his work to the Liver- feelings in being shewn to be a dunce, and ool Solomon, Mr. Roscoe. Upon every disappointed expectations in not getting from oint, relating to the subject of the Portu- his task-master his usual hire, to a certain uese emigration, they differed in their degree palliated the resentment of that intiments. Mr. Lingham, to use the wretched book-maker. But what have these fords of the review, “kept quite clear reviewers to urge in extenuation of this graof the least appearance of faction; while tuitous recommendation of legal proceed

Mr. Rylance, without any material quali ings? Mr. Lingham did not charge them fication, except perhaps his praise of with a systematic and scandalous perversion * Mr. Roscoe in the dedication, adopted of their duty, with a base and profligate bian the precise line of argument, taken by either for or against every author whom they the persons in opposition to the present noticed ; Mr. Lingham did not say of them,

ministry." This was difference enough that their malignity against most authors o regulate the judgment of these candid, and was to be equalled only by their interested mpartial critics. Mr. Rylance became, of adulation of a few ; that their wanton and course, the favourite, and Mr. Lingham, as scurrilous attacks on respectable writers man swayed by no party motions, but bold in general, were balanced only in infamy by and independent enough to write from his their gross and unblushing panegyrics upon owo understanding, was, of course, to be run the members of their own fraternity; that, down. If, however, on the present occa- throughout the whole of their career, their sion, the Edinburgh Reviewers had confined pens have been vilely prostituted to party themselves to literary strictures only, how- purposes, in which task their inconsistency ser partial and corrupt those strictures has been as notorious as their corruption,

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the grovelling sycophants of power and keep up the noble spirit by which it is ani

mated.--To make known to Spain and the and of his opponents, when dead. These, or similar charges, Mr. Lingham never in- the Emperor of the French to seize the pere sinuated against the Edinburgh Reviewers. son of our king, Ferdinand VII, and to One does not see, therefore why they should subjugate this great and generous nation, is feel so sore, why they should so strongly a duty well worthy of one who, like myself sympathize with Mr. Rylance, cry out the is in a condition to discharge it; inasmuch senseless yell of libel, and call for punish- as circumstances placed me in a situation to ment in a court of justice! Really, Mr. be an eye-witness of the events which pre Cobbett, the coincidence between the time ceded the catastrophe of Bayonne, and of this publication (April, 180s) and the which I bore a part

It was not in on commencement of the knight's law-suit, and power to do this before, iu consequence the identity of their sentiments upon the sub- personal restraint, and from not having co ject of libel, are so marvellous, that I veri- jected the documents necessary to accred By suspect some of these young friends, who

my statement.

Some are still wanting perhaps may belong to the profession of the which it was necessary to burn, in cons Ja'v, were his counsellors upon the occasion, quence of dangerous circunstances, advised the action, as the phrase is, and which every thing was to be feared ; othe perhaps assisted in getting up he cause. The have disappeared through the various ind kniglit, 1 dare say, has since heartily re. dents connected with that unhappy periods pented of baving acted upon the opinion, but those which I now present are suiticien from wbatever quarter it proceeded ; and to prove the atrocious violence committee ile Edinburgh Reviewers, since the unfor- against our beloved king, Ferdinand VI tunate failure of liis experiment, are pro- and the whole nation. Though the condola bably now ashamed of the detestable perse-, of Spain towards France since the peace cuting spirit so wholly inimical to the liber- Basle, a very interesting portion of its post ty of ihe press, upon the expression of tical bistory in these latter times, is in which I have animadverted. In making mately connected with the importapt event these animadversions I have no other object which form the subject of this Expositio in view than 10 vindicate that palladium of it is not necessary to dwell even upon our rights, without the secure enjoyment of principal periods. It will be sufficient which you, Sir, have so often observed, that state what the whole nation, and all Eaton: our boasted freedoni is nothing wortlı At know, that the political systein of Spal the saine time I fuel an apology to be cue, has constantly been during this time to pre for the length to whichi niy observations serve frieuciship and the best understandig have extended, a length to be justified only with France, and to maintain, at all by

by the importance of the subject itself, zards, the ruinous alliance concluded i ". which will, I hope, plead my excuse, and 1796.-To attain this end, there is no sacri

bestow a temporary consequence even upon fice which Spain has not made ; and as ta these insizoificant individuals, Messrs. Ry- preservation of the Prince of the Peace lance and Lingham.--Yours, &c.-P. D.- the high degree of favour be enjoyed wit Supt. 24, 1903.

Charles IV. depended in a great measter

upon the continuance of this system, it ** EXPOSITION OF THE

maintained with the greatest constancy am CHINATIONS WHICH LED TO THE USUR- indefatigable attention. Fleets, armies OF THE CROWN OF SPAIN, ANI) treasure, everything was sacrificed

France; humiliations, submissions, every

thing was suffered, every thing was de ECUTION, BY DON PEDRO CEVALLOS, to satisfy, as far as possible, the iosa: i23

demands of the French government; by RIS' CATHOLIC

ibe idea never once occurred of preserving

the nation against the machinations of an At a period when the nation bás made ally, who was overrunning Europe.--Ibe and continues to make the most heroic Treaty of Tilsit, in which the destiny of the efforts to shake off the yoke of slavery 3l. world seenied to be decided in his favour tempted to be imposed upon it, it is the du- was hardly concluded, when he turned his ly of all good citizens 10 coutribute, by eyes towards the West, and resolved ou ine every means in their power, to enlighien it ruin of Portugal and Spain ; or what with respect to the real causes that have to the same purpose, to make himself nas. brought it into its present situation, and to ter of this vast peninsula, with a view







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making its inhabitants as happy as those of l agent employed to forward the plan which Italy, Holland, Switzerland, and the league Napoleon had formed.---Fortunately the of the Raine. At this very time, ihe Em- ! Spanish nation was deeply iopressed with xeror was revolving in his mind some designs ita situation, entertained a just opinion of; atal to Spain (for he began to disarm her), the good disposition and religious principles · y demanding a respectable body of our of their prince of the Asturias, and sus." roops to exert their valour in remote re- pected instantaneously that the whole was a ions, and for foreign interests. This he calumoy fabricated by the Favourite, as abfected without difficulty, and there was surd as it was audacious, in order to remove aced at bis disposal a gallant and picked the only obstacle which then opposed his rce of 16,000 men of all descriptions.-- views. It is alre?dy known, tliat on the be enterprize of making himself master imprisonment of the prince of Asturias, his

Spain was not so easy as Napoleon ima- royal father wrote to the Emperor; 110 4 ned. It was, above all, necessary to find doubt at the suggestion of the Favourile, t some pre:cxt for carrying into execution complaining of the conduct of the ambas: daring and gigantic plan of subjugating sadar Beauharnois, in his clandestine comriendly and allied nation, that had made munications with the prince of Asturias, many sacrifices for France, and which and expressing his surprise that the emperor s very Emperor had praised for its fidelity bad not come to a previous understanding 1 nobleness of character.-Neverthele:s, with, bis majesty o. a subject of such preng accustomed to act with that disregard to eminent importance 'to sovereigns.-As the icacy in the choice of his means, which imprisonment of the prince of Asturias, characteristic of the man who imaginas and, above all, the most scandalous decree t the conquest of the whole world, the fulminated against his royal person, produtruction of the human species, and the ced an effect completely contrary to the exoc of war are conducive to true glory, pectations of the Favourite, he began to be resolved to excite and foment discord in afraid, thought proper to iecede, and to royal family of Spain, through his am- mediate a reconciliation between the royal sador at this court.-The latter, though parents and their son. With this view, as is baps pot initiated in the grand secret of stated in the Abstract of the Escurial Cause, master, succeeded in seducing the prince circulaled by the Council in consequence of Asturias, our present king and master, his majest;'s orders of the 8th April, he i suggested to him the idea of inter- | forged certain letters, and made the prince rrying with a princess related to the em- of Asturias sign them while a prisoner, or. The affiction which his highness which being delivered into the hands of the jured under from a conjunction of circum- royal parents, were supposed to have softenlees, as lamentable as notorious, and his ed their hearts; and by these singular means iety to avoid another connection into did this innocent prince obtain a nonival ch it was attempted to force him, with | liberty. - This was the state of affairs when dy selected for bin by his greatest ene- a French courier arrived at the royal palace , and on that account alone ihe object of of St. Laurence, with a treaty concluded arersion, induced bim to acquiesce in and signed at Fontainbleau on the 27th of suggestions of the ambassador, but with Oct. by Don Eugenio Isquierdo, as plenipostipulation that it was to meet the appro- ientiary of his Catholic majesty, and Maron of his august parents, and under the shal Duroc, inte name of the emperor of ression that it would strengthen the the French. Its couients, as well as those ndship and alliance then subsisting be- of the separate Convention, constituie Nos. ; en the two crowns. His bigliness, ac

1 and 2 of the documents annexed to this ted by motives so cogent in a political Exposition --It is worthy of observation, nt of view, and yielding to the solicita- that the department of the ministry, of 13 of the ambassador, wrote accordingly ubich I was at the head, was totally unac. bis Imperial majesty. - A few days after quainted with the measures taken by Don E. - beloved prince wrote ibis letter, occurr- Isquierdo, at Puris, as well as with lis ap

the scandalous imprisonment of his au- pointment, his instructions, bis corresponia it person in the royal monastery of St. dence, and every part of his proceedings.urence, and the still more scandalons de. The result of this treaty was to render the e which was issued in the name of the Emperor master of with very littie ag, and addressed to the council of Cas- expence; to furnish him with a plausible =, There are very strong reasons to be- pretext for introducing his armies into our #e, that the unknown hand that frustra- peninsula, with ile iment of sotjigating it suis feigned conspiracy was some French

at a proper opportuniiy, and to put bin in

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