« PreviousContinue »
aut off the enemy's retreat through Navarre, between the system of an ambitious and where they will be joined by other troops treacherous goverument, and that of a and the armned peasantry of that country; bation which cements its felicity by the fairand the 6000 men that I expect to-worrow est principles of justice, and considers not from Valentia, joined by 4000 men of the as real enemics those who took no share in army formed on Catalay-ad, will, I trust, be the delicious combat of their government. able to overtake the enemy's rear, in order France will long deplore the calamities which to chastise and prevent them from commit- the war with Spain has prepared for her; ting on this march their usual robberies and and cannot recollect, without the deepest vexations. This fortunate event has been this sense of shame, the means employed to carry day celebrated with the ringing of bells, it on.-Husbandmen, artizans, orphans, and to-morrow the Te Deum will be sung aged and religious persons, ye who have to offer up thanks to the Most High. It is been reduced to indigence and misery in of great importance to accelerate the meeting consequence of your fields being fired, your of the deputies of all the provincas of Spain, houses destroyed, and your property, whichi, and I think it would be expedient to ap- however small, constituted your whole forpoint for that purpose a day in the next tune and all your comfort, robbed by the month of September. I have given the French, be easy ; you have the good forsame advice to the rest of the general and tune of living in Spain, and yours is the supreme councils in the whole kingdom ; glory to have defended the capital of Arragon, ind should you
coincide with me in opinion whereby our enemy was prevented from de.. on this subject, I hope you will acquaint me solating the rest of this beautiful province : with it. --JOSEPH DB PALAFOX Y MELZI. you bore up with resignation under your sufHead-quarters, Saragossa, Aug. 13, 1808. ferings, and disregarded your private interest Manifesto, dated Head-quarters, Saragossa, in order to promote the general good. I Aug. 15.
cannot look with indifference on deeds of After so many days of pain and affliction, heroism like yours, nor omit any opportunihe period has at length arrived, which I ty of prooaring you relief. I have very parould expect, from the firmness and valour ticularly charged the intendant general of with which you have defended this illustrious the kingdom, D. Lorenzo Calbo, as soon as capital. – Having witnessed the shameful the most pressing occupation of the present light of ibe French slaves, who have aban- period shall permit it, to relieve your wauts loned the artillery, ammunition, and pro- by every means in his power ; and I depend isions, which their detestable rapacity had on the generous feelings of all Spaniards, leaped up, let us now perform our principal and on the liberal sentiments of our beloved luty, and offer up thanks to the Omnipotent king, that all possible exertion will be made who has inficted condign punishment on to indemnify you for your sufferings and hose wretched soldiers who profane the losses.-PALAFOX. emples, outrage the sacred images of the Manifesto of the Junta of Seville, August Divinity; and are such strangers to morality,
3, 1808. hat they are not worthy to have any inter- The defence of our country, and of our ourse with the rest of mankind. Let us king, that of our laws, our religion, and of eave their emperor to the remorse and afflic all the rights of man, trodden down and ions which are the lot of the wicked, and violated, in a manner which is without exa eseech the Most High, that he may youch- ample, by the emperor of the French, áfe to bless again our arms, that the two Napoleon I. and by his troops in Spain, mmies which are in pursuit of the fugitive compelled the whole nation to take up arms, obbers, may complete their destruction.- and to chuse itself a form of government; The fields of Saragossa, its gates, and even and in the difficulties and dangers into which ts streets, are stained by the blood of the French had plunged it, all, or nearly all, 3000 Frenchmen, who have paid with the provinces, as it were by the inspiration heir lives for the temerity of their chief. of heaven, and in a manner little short of This is the fruit which the French have miraculous, created supreme juntas, deli.
vered themselves up to their guidance, and Europe, nay, the universe, will hear with placed in their hands the rights and the horror the names of their generals Le Febvre ultimate fate of Spain – The effects have and Verdier, who, unmindful of the good hitherto most happily cu rresponded with the treatment which the French prisoners, and designs of those who formed them. The all the natives of France experienced in Arra- provinces have armed themselves; fome gon, bare cominicred the utmost atrocities. have formed large arniies of veteran troops, They very justly appreciated the difference and have uuiled to them the enlisted pea. sants; all, or nearly all, have fought and an alteration into them; the different preare figbling against the French in behalf of texts for this alteration; and, lastly, the their king, Ferdinand VII. with a valour final settlement which was made by the and a constancy, of which neither Greece, cortes of 1739, and which ought in future nor Rome, nor any other nauon of the to be the rule. --But are we in situation to world, bad any idea. The French are really talk of these matters? Long live our king amazed and terrified, and the hopes of con- and indisputable sovereign Ferdinand VII. quering them are as sure as human certainty and long live his agust brothers, heirs of can reach. The only thing which can im- the crown, atter his attested decease.
Why pair or frustrate them, is ui-cord, and the then anticipate those enquiries which can onwant of union among the provinces them- Jy be necessary in default of these? This selves. Hence the supreme junta paid its anticipation may produce, by the diversity first attention to renove that danger, with nf opinions which it creates, a cruel diswhi:h view it printed and published the union, which, of itself alone, will utterly official paper, entitled Precautions, which it ruin the only aim and onject which Spain at communicated in every possible manner to present bas in view, alid ibat is, its owil eyall the provinces of Spain. The bringing tire and independent prezervation for its so. this plan to perfection, and carrying it into vereign lord and king, Ferdinand VII and complete execution, is now more than ever his indisputed successors; and, wish its necessary. Our enemies are anxious to king, the preservation of its own rights and foment our divisions. Human passions, laws, and the unity of the holy Roman Capersonal interests ill understood, the igno.tholic apostolical religion, which it has glorance, the weakness, the blindness of min, riously professed and defended for so many may, perhaps, without their knowing it, ages. It is therefore, ba b absurd and danassist the evil designs of our enemies, and gerous to dispute about the succession in cases thus destroy a beginning so glorious, and evidently remote; all the provinces of Spain facilitate and consunimate the entire ruin of ought to confine thenıselies in this respect 10 Spain. This it is that we are endeavouring this general expression.." Hireditney success to guard against, urged only by the most sion according to ihe fundamental trill's of the sacred motives, by our honour, by our loy- monarchy."—Not so is it with the second alty as affectionate subjects, by our duty as question moved by the various juutas of the Spaniards, by our faith as Christians; and kingdom, whi h certainly keep the people here we protest before God and man, whose in a state of disquietude and agitation, is aid we invoke with all fervency, that we the continual object of public conversation, will write nothing but what is dictated to us and may produce division: fuial to the gene. by the love of our country, the preservation rous design, and the virtuons obligation inta of our king, and of our rights, not mingling which we have entered of defending ourselves with it any thing that appears to partake of against our enemies, and of preserving our passion, of interest, or of any other person- country, our king, onr monarchy, our lans, al mutive ; but being always ready to hear and our religion. This second question isthe opinions of the other provinces, and to is there a necessity for creating a supreme amend our own errors, wherever it shall be government, which may unite the sureshewn that we have commiited any.- Be it reign authority of all the provinces, oil the chief care to avoid every thing which is the restitution of king Ferdinand to his not absolutely necessary, and which may throne ?>This supreme junta declares serve to sow the seeds of disunion in the openly, that from the beginning te the provinces, and to excite divisions among present time it has been persuaded that such a ihem; and of this nature we esteem all con- supreme government is altogether necessary, versations about the royal house, and of ihe and that without it the country is in danger, order of succession in different families and its enemies will find neaus of completo which derive a right from it. There is no ing its ruin; and the reasons of this deler. person so ignorant of the history of Spain, nination and declaration are so evident, and and of the manner in which the throne has present themselves with such clearness to been occupied, as not to know the changes ibe eyes of all, that they cannot fail of conwhich have taken place in the succession. vincing all who have the least notion of pubIt is also known what are the legislative pro- lic affairs, or a correct insight into ibe naceedings upon this point; what the manner ture of man, the passions which move him, in which endeavours were used to introduce and the order of human affairs in all ages.
(To be continued.)
Printed by Cox and Baylis, Great Queen Sreet; published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Covente Garden, whicre furmer Numbers may be had: sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Mitre, Pall-Mall.
Vol. XIV. No. 16.) LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 15, 1803. [Price 100.
In the London Gazille Extraordingry, in which were pa'lished, by the govemnent, the several documents rering co the lace Conventions in Portugal, the Armistice, which was the basis of all that followell, and wach, as far as it was reputed from, in the subiequent negociations, was verdered less injurious and disa graceful; this Armistice, which was, on our part, negociated by Sir Aliur Wellesley, and which b re his scature; this Aimistice was published, was, by the government, communicated to the people of England, in the French lanjuaze onlv, while all the other documents were, in the very same Gazzite Extraordinary, p.biished in the English language only. 577)
[578 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. Wellesley would not, indeed, have enjoyed CONVENTION IN PORTUGAL The the praises of this gulled nution for the space faci, a statement of which I have placed at of a week; a strong and unjust public perthe head of this present Number of nry suasion, in his favour, would not have been work, should be constantly borne in mind excited; but that is all, that is all the misby every man in this disgrace and abused chief that could possibly have arisen froin tountry. It has been the subject of much the delay.---But, was there a delay ? I conversa!ion and inquiry; it was a thing, of doubt it. Did not the bearer of the disa which the ministers must have been desirous patch beir also the account of the armisD give, or cause to be given, a satisfactory tice, in substance is not in form? It is my xplanation ; it is notorious, that a whole opinion that he did. Ships do not move off ponthi has now elapsed without the appear- at a mom'it's warning, like post-chaises. dce of even any atteinpt at such expla- The armistice must have been concluded lation ; and, therefore, the public are jus. before the bearer of the bragging dispatch hed in concluding, that their intention, left Portugal; and, though it would hare bom the first, wis to do all in their power been of liwe lise, perhaps, to send forward Oscreen Wellesley, let what would become the document in due form, yet the substance f his associates in the never-to-be-forgotten of it might have been added to the di parchi, tansaction. Whether they will persevere and it is not credible that it was not added. 3 this their evident intention we shall My belief, therefore, is, that the cubitance 3on see ; probably I shall be able to per- of the aimistice was made known to Lord pive it even before this article be finished ; Castlere.igh through the berer of the disyr, the hero of Oude being arrived, his patchs ; a'id that he, not being bound 10
wspaper will not be long in making cominunicate that substance to the public, • 2030 to us what we have to expect withi suittred us to go on, for as loog a rine as xpect to him.-luthe meanwhile, let possible, applauciing the conduct of Wellessatend to some points which have escaped jer. -I do not wish to strain any thing.
The dispatch, giving an account of I have no other notive; can have no orier : victories in Portugal, were dated on the motive, than that of a desire to see imparW of August ; the bearer of that dispatch tial justice clone ; but, this appears to me uld not have come away before ihat daly; to be the fact, and, if it be so, the public auglit I that very day the armistice was negocisted to bear it in mind; because it is a circunal concluded, and yet the bearer of the dis- stance strongly corroborating the opinion, ich brought no cccount of the armistie'. now generally prevalent, that the ministry, fas not this soneihing very singular? Sav, or a part of them at least, hare intended at the bezrer was ready to come off in the ard, probably, do intend, to screen Wellesorning, and that the armistice was uit ler at !! events. --From mouves, which' cluded until night. But, if there were will, by-and-bye, become appareut enough,
sessel ready to send off with another the friends of Wellesley are now question, Essenger at night, why was not the barer
ing the practicability of reducing Junot pt until nighi, that the consequence of the wiihin any reasonable space of time; and a cery as well as the victory itself might correspondent, whose lerret will be found in are been announced to us at the saine another part of this double Number of the be? Wbat injury to the service could Register, sels boiselt seriously to work to ossibly have arisen froni the delay of a controvert llie opinion which I gave, to ?W hours in the departure of this messen- wil, ther, afier reading Wellesley's dispatch, Nay, what possible inconvenience
we had a right to expect, by the mete would have therefrom arisen? Sir Arthur arrival, an account of the unconditioual
surrender of the Freuch. Did any one before less than pine thousand men. After imagine, that, by the “ next arrival," all, however, we return to the point : I meant, or could mean, the very next be his force what it nighi, the whole of it vesel that should come into port from was beaten by about one third of the force the shores of Portugal? I meani, by the that we had at ibe lime of making the Cose Dext bearer of dispaiches from our army ; vention; the whole of it was beaten but the next bearer of any intelligence ot' in. the day before buy one third of Ibat force, portance ; and, I appeal to the language of amongst whom were the very niep who had Ilie press, at the time Wellesley's dispatch beaten liim ; ibis is the fact, or....Welles. was received, for a prout that sich was the ley tolil ibis nation, this credulous and abuexpectation generally entertained.---- Bui, seil nation, it shanu til lie. Well, says was it a reasonable expectation ? That is this new defender of Wellesley, but of the question ; and ir is, observe, a question what avail would have been a superiority of which lies entirely between Willesiey and force? We should not have made June the puislic, the other commanders having surrender any thing the sooner on account had no land in the bragging dispatch. of great superiority of numbers.--- No? My correspoudent now tells me of !u'enty Why then, the complete power of cutting or more than twenty thousand men, whom off surcours and of preventing the chance Jinuot l'ad under his command. But, Wel. of sallies wouid, in the hands of our generais, Jesley told us, that, with half his force, be- have been useless? Besides, what are this fore he was joined by Burrard, lie beat gentleman's ideas of a siege? It is, for the as thou! ole otibe Frini ha force, cominanded
most part, a very vulgar atfair ; an affair "b: the Queilbronies in pitian.' Ishould much more resenibling ditching and draining like to bille seen liiw wlien be penned this than any thing else ; and, as iwo labudiers ląst quoted sentence. By the Duc d'A- will do inice as much at ditching in a day “ brantes in person ! " How he braced up, than one labourer will do, so thirty thousand I dare siy, and repeated the words to him. men will, in the same space, do twice 25 selt, with an air of pomposity so insepara- much at inaking trenches, approaches, and ble from his sect. " In person !" Why, if batteries, as titteen Thousand men. We there had been au army of a hundredthousand have, morcover, the authoring of that great mien, commanded by emperors, the language man, Sir Hew, one of whose moires in and manner could not have been more pon. coming to terms with Junot was, that there pous. Some one has observed, that the was a doult, whether Sir Jobn Moore's giving of this title 10 Junot proceeded solely division could be landed at the time. Now, from the vanity of Wellesley; as if nothing acceding to the notion of my correspondent, short of a Duke were worthy of the bonour more nen were not only not necessary, but of measuring swords with a Wellesley; absolutely useless for The purpose of any and, indeed, it seems difficult to attribute operation that could, at the time alluded to, to any other motive, this cutting and fligrant be in contemplation.- But, for the pure insult to a prince and a people, whom we pose of storming, would not superiority of went out to rescue from insult and oppres- numbers have been an advantage ? 01, sion. To return from this digression : it has not this mode of attack yet found its matters litile what were the numbers of Ju.
way into the practice of our arn:ies? Why not's force at the date of the negociation; du we raise all these nien ; why do we pay fur, whether many or few, " the whole" of ten thousand officers; why have we a sta.! his force had been beaten by one hulf" superior in numbers, and very far superior of the force of Wellesiey, and we kuow, in expence, to Buonaparte, if we are never that the force of the latter became double in to hear of any enterprize of this sort The Isumber, or nearly double, previous to the greater part of the forts in Portugal, if sigiling of the Convention. It is a tict pretty my information be correct, were things generally known, that wl.en transports are to be taken by siorm, with the loss of demanded, doulile lionmilie is expected. Be. perhaps a thousand men for each attack sides, the number is now:swelled out with of this kind; and, it will require very all sorts of persons, persons, who, observe, ample and very credible evidence to cou. shut up in forts, would have been a dead vince me, that, with such an army, with weiglit upon him; and yet my correspon- | thirty thousand men, so able-budied and so deat chooses to believe, that Junot could accustomed to labour, with such a train of have brought wenis thousand men into the artillery, and with the whole of the strength, tield, though it was positively stated, that | labour, and resources of the country at our he recreated with lois is liole force betoré one disposal, not to mention a considerable ar. trail of Weiluley's army ; that is to say, ny of Portuguese actually erabodied; it
will require much in leed to convince me, gentle, that he had only in play the bully, that, with such neans, our generals might the robber, and the murderer,' and had nonot, in the course of one wrek, have carried thing to apprehend in the way of retaliation? a mine under the rampart of Junot's strong. Judge, reader, of the badness of a cause, in est fortress There would have been no re. support of wbich such an argument is regular investiture necessary; no line of cir. sorted 10.---But, as the reader will per. cumvallarion ; none of the precautions usual- ceive, we are now, it seems, to an:wer those ly adopie:t in cases of regular siege ; because who defend the Convention, not those who sallivs and sučcours were out of the question, execrare the Convention and defend Wel, Did ever man conceive, that, under such Jestey. Reader, we bave heard the defencircumstances, a breach could not be made ders of Wellesley aswert, in the most posiin six days ? Never; and, when my cor- tive manner, that he protested against the respondent renlinds me of Saragossa and Convention, and against any compromise at other open towns, which have exhibiied to all with the French; that he had nothing to the world instances of long and successful do with negociating the armistice which he resistance, my answer is, that it has not signed ; that the French general wrote it beeir owing to the strength of the place, but out with his own hand; thui Dalrymple, at to the strength and courage of the defenders. Kellerman's request, commanded Wellesley Let him shiew me an instance, wherein the to put his signature to it; and, that, after
assailant had, with a third of his force, very earnest remonstrances, he finally yield. : beaten the assailed but the day before, and ed obedience to the hateful command.
had all the country around for friends, while Those defenders have plyed us with disser, his eneny had nothing but enemies within tations upon military discipline; they have and without ; let him shew me an instance told us, that absolute power in the chief and like this, wherein a successful, of a long, implicit obedience in his inferiors are the defence has been maintained, and I will say, soul of an army; and, calling in the terria that he has advanced something worth listen- ble to the aid of the persuasive, they have ing to ; but, for au instance of this sort he reminded us, that if poor Sir Arthur had will search history in vain.-As if for the disobeyed the mighty Sir Hew, the latter purpose of furnishing us with a striking in might have run him through the body! stance of the iniserable shifts, to which the Did they not assert and reason thusNaye
partizans of Sir Arthur Wellesley are driven the gaudy, chariot-lounging, the painted and y (for he must, at last, stand responsible for piano-playing strumnpeis about town, who,
she Convention), this writer reminds me, as part of their regular calling, deal in the that the people of Li bon, the dear good pathetic as well as in lies, trumped up a folks of Lisbon, were at the mercy of Junot; story of Sir Arthur's going upon his knees and, that it was our duty to prevent him, to prevail upon Sir Hew not to bring such by any means whatever, from comınitting a disgrace upon his country. Did not his any cruelties upon them, which cruelties he defenders say, that he was to be considered, might have committed, if we had refused as to the Armistice, as no more responsi., him such terms as he demanded. It is piry ble than the clerk of an attorney or a
banker, signs or it applied against the sending the expedition to Portugal, where throw all the blame, all the responsibility, it bas, at an enormous expence, purchased upon Sir Hew, whose fame they blasted, . us deep disgrace, and done infinite injustice and whose carcase they threw dowa before and injury to our allies of Portugal, Spain, us, to be trampled and spit upon ? Did and Sweden. Indeed, it would apply against they not, in support of their great assertion every attempt to drive the eneny out of any respecting the Protest, tirst publish and theu town or place. It is a sweeping argument; quote, as from vouchers of undoubted authe universal argument of the coward : thenticity, numerous extracts of " letters " pould attack you, but I am afraid of the from the army," ibe whole of which ex
consequences.” What! did not Junot tracts spoke of the famous Protest, blained well know, that, at last, he must become Sir Hew and Burrard, but were particularly really responsible for all the cruelties he com- strong and clear as to the Protest ? Every mitted upon the people of Lisbon ? Did he
sycophant in London had this Protest upon not know, that we had cords to hang with his lips. Protest, Protest, “ the grllant Sir and muskers to shoot with? Or, was he ap- Arthur's Protest," the “ Conqueror of prized, iy any means, that we were so gen- • Viineira's Protest !" This was the cry. tle a people, or had committed our armies through the regions of Whitehall, and was to the care and commard of generals so faithfully echoed by the puuks of tbe squares.
tluat this argument has been so long de la fel de bie name of this master? Did they not