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lives so valuable, in order that Spain may other reason, than their having defended not be without a king, the nation will make their insulted brethren, what could we exuse of their elective right in favour of the pect from them, had we submitted to their Archduke Charles, as nephew of Charles dominion? Their perfidious conduct to-, III. in case that the Prince of Sicily, or the wards our king and his whole family, whora infant Don Pedro, and the other breirs should they deceived and decoyed into France under not be able to concur.

3. That should the the promise of an eternal armistice, in order French army commit any robberies, devas- to chain them all, bas no precedent in histation, and murders, either in Madrid or any tory. Their conduct towards the whole Gtber town, invaded by the French troops, nation, is more iniquitous than we had ibe. they shall be considered as guilty of high right to expect from a horde of Hottentots. treason, and no quarter shall be given to any - They have protaned our temples ; they of them. 4. That all the transactions which have insulted our religion ; they have askave hitherto taken place, sliall be considered sailed our wives; in fine, they have broken all as ilegal,void,and extorted by violence, which their promises, and there exists no right which is known to be practised in both places. they have not violated. To arms, Asturians, 3. That what may hereafter be done in to arms ! let us not forget, that Asturias at Bayonne, shall also be considered as null the time of apother invasion, which wiand void ; and all who shall take an active doubtedly was less unjust, restored the mopart in the lib- transactions, shall be deemed narchy. Let us aspire to the same glory on traitors to their couniry. 6. That all desert- the present occasion. Let us recollect that ers of the French army who shall present no foreign nation.could ever lord it over us, themselves, shail, be admitted in Arragon, whatever exertioo it may have made for that and treated with that generosity which forms purpose. Let us offer up our prayers to the a prominent feature of the Spanish oational God of Hosts. Let us implore the interinzracter; they shall be disar med and con. cession of our Lady of Battles, whose image duted to this capital, where they may en- is worshipped in the most antient temple of : pist in our troops. 7. All other provinces Covadonga ; and perfectly sure that she canand kingdonas of Spain, not yet invaded by not forsake us in so just a cause, let us rush : the enemy, are inviied to meet by deputies at upon our detestable enemy, and annihilate Permal, or any other suitable place, to no- and drive out of our peninsula, a people 80 eginate a lieutenant-general, whose orders base and treacherous. This demand is ad-' shall be obeyed by the particular chiefs of dressed to you in the name of your reprebe different kingdoms. 8. The foregoing sentatives, by the procurator general of the manifesto shall be printel and published in principality.-- ALVARO FLOREZ ESTAUDA. the whole kingdom of Arragou ; and it shall

Oviedo. also be circulated in the capitals and principal The council general of the principality places of all the provinces and kingdoms of must not lose a moment to publish the Spain. Given in the head-quarters at Sara- following letter which has just been received fossa, the 31st May, 1808.- Palafox, Go- from their king, Ferdinand the VII.and the error and Captain General of the Kingdom authenticity of which is ascertained by one Arragon.

of the menibers of the council, who possesses ASTURIA.

the most unquestionable knowledge thereof. Loyal Asturians! beloved countrymen ! On the first cover is the superscription our first vishes are already fulfilled. The "To the royal assemblage of Oviedo." ribcipality, discharging those duties which The secoud is superscribed. To the chief re most sacred to men, has already for- of arms of "Asturias.". " Noble Asnally declared war against France. You turians.-I am surrounded on all sides, and. nay perhaps dread this vigorous resolution. a victim of perfidy. You sayed Spain under But what other measure could or ought we worse circumstances an the present. · BeD adopt? Shall there be found one single ing now prisoner, I demand not from you gan among us, who prefers the vile and the crown, but I require, that, concerting a gomioions death of slaves to the glory of well digested plan with the neighbouring prom, ting on the field of honour, with arms in vinces, you do, assert your liberty, and 00$!.. iis hand, defending our unfortunate mo. submit to a foreign yoke, por subject your-, tareh, oor homes, our children, and our selves to the treacherous enemy, who-devives? If the very moment, when those spoils of his rights your unfortunate--sands of banditti were receiving the kindest PRINCE FERDINAND.

PRINCE FERDINAND.Bayonone, May offices and favours from the inhabitants of 8th, 1808."-To expressions so energetic por capital, they murdered in cold blood and impressive tho council ought not to add spwards of two thousand people, for no any observation ; but with the most poig.

of your

nant grief they mingle their tears with those worthy of the praise and imitation of al

ai of all their beloved and faithful countrymen, Spaniards. You rather wish toidie, than to to whom the letter is communicated.- see your independence trampled jinder foot, JUAN DE ARGUEKER TORAL, Act. Secretary. your religion destroyed, your king in,.capGALICIA.

tivity, and your country thičajened with Brave Spaniards,—The abdication of his a yoke equally burthensome, and unjust. kingdom by our Sovereigo Ferdinand VII. Quicken the generous sentiments of your officially communicated to us, is the most noble minds. Fly to arms, not like that striking proof of the violence he sutters.

monster, to indulge an inordinate anbition ; He thereby manifests to us his want of liber- not like him, to violate the rights of buma. ty anul power, and the grief he feels on nity and the law of nations; not io render being compelled, by despotism and tyranny, us odious to unkind; not to offend, a to separate himself from his subjects; be generous and friendly nation, ruled by i implicitly demands our assistance. It is in- monster already become insufferable upon tended io substitute in his place a laughty earili - Fly to arms, to assist your country. and perfidious conqueror, who mediates the men; to rescue your king from captivity; effusion of your blood, to satiate bis san- to restore to our government liberty, ener: guinary appetite and his boundless ambition, gy, and vigour ; to preserve your lives and as he has hitherto profusely shed the blood Those of your children; to maintain the of the noble, brave and loyal French nation. uncontrouled right of enjoyiog and disposing He means to drag, by main force, the most of your property ; to assert, the independence illustrious Spanish youths, whither the good

native soil; and, above all, to di faith of our monarch has already sent a great fend your sacred religion. Employ the arms part of them, without any other object ihan which she tenders; arm your minds with to aggrandize a man, for whom the world the f-ar of God; implore the aid of the does not appear to be suficiently extensive, immaculate conceptivi, and of the glorious and who gluts on human bloot. The re- Apostle St. Jacob, our patron; and confident ward of that generous act, has been a per- of success in so giorious a cause, rush forth fidious conduct, unprecedented in the annals 10 grasp the victory which is prepared for of civilized nations. The stratagems, the yon by their intercession, and the justice of frauds, the treacheries, are notorious, which your cause.—And ye, corporations and priNapoleon bas employed to introduce, in tlie: vale individuals, who; from your situation quality of an intimate ally and a faithint and circumstances, cannot take up arms, friend, his troops to our very capital, and assist your brethren with your property and inakes bimself inaster of the fortresses og fortunes - You are concerned more than our frontiers; to harass the feelings of our any other subject in this demand so sacritice monarch; to cause disiurbances aniong the spontaneously part of your propertys that people; to rob us of our king, princes, and you may not be deprived of the wache-by infanto, and to controul with an iron hand violence. Do not delay that sacrifice j1 md the deliberation of our government, which, ment, if you wish that by the prompt exewithout liberty, gives orders which it abhors, cution of a well combined plans the fury of ruled as they are by a foreign regent and an enemy be checked, who is racefistomed intruder. This scandalous conduct, and at all times to act with the rapidith of that which he has comınitted with regard to lightning. Divest yourselves of a private Etruria, and our neighbours the Portuguese, views, and hesitate notizz for otherwise you point out to us the degree of fidelity and yourselves, your wives, children, and tamifaith which we may expect from the high lies, will become the vietims of the most sounding promises with which he means to inveterate revenge.--Don MAXUAL ACHA cloak his inalignant designs, treating us as a

Sec. people at once insensible and dastardly !

PRECAUTIONS, Shalla cultivated, brave, and generous na

Which it will le proper to observe through tion; bend its neck under the yoke of per- out the different Provinces of Spuin, in fiely? Shall it allow itself to be insulted by the necessity to which they have been injuries--the most perfidious, immoral, and driven by the French, oj resisting the disgracefol, committed in the face of the unjust anu violent possession which their whole world; and submit to the most humi- urmies are endravour ing to take of the liating slavery prepared for it? No, noble Kingdoin, Galicians, such are not the dictates of your We cannot doubt a moment of the noble minus. Glowing with the niost vir- exertions which the united provinces of tuous ardour and noblest enthusiasm, you Spain would make to obstruct and defeat have already expressed your sentiments, the malicious designs of the French, and

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that they will sacrifice even their lives on them in flank and rear, and not to leave this occasion, the most important, and even them a moment of repose. The courage of unparalleled in the history of the nation, these inhabitants, is well known, and they both in the thing itself, and in the horrible will eagerly embrace such enterprizes if means of ingratitude and perfidy by which ihey are led as they should be. In the the French bave undertaken, parsced, and succession war the enemy entered twice into are still endeavouring to effect our slavery :- the interior of the kingdom, and even as 1. Let the first object be to avoid all general far as its capital, and ihis was the cause of actions, and to convince ourselves of the de feat, their entire ruin, and their utter tery great hazards, without any advantage, failure of success.-7. The generalissimos or even the hope of it, to which they would of the North and East will block up the expose us. The reasons of this resolution entrances to the provinces under their com. are many, and such as any one will discover mand, and conse to the assistance of

any who bas the use of his understanding. - one that may be attacked by the enemy, to 2. A war of partisans is the system which prevent as mudi as possible all pillage, and mis as ; the embarrassing and wasting the preserve its inhabitants from the desclation enemy's armies by want of provisions, des. of war; the many mountains and defiles troying bridges, throwing up entrenchments which are on the confines of these provinces in proper situations, and othersimilar meaus. being favourable to such projects ---8. The The situation of Spain, its many mour- destination of the general of Navarre, Bistains, and the passes which ibey present, cay and the rest of this department is the its rivers and torrents, and even the colloca most important of all, in which he will be tion of its provinces, invite us to carry on assisted by the generals of the North and this species of warfare successfully.-3. Il East: with the trops and other succours is indispensille that each province should which he stands in need of. His whole hare its general, of known talents, and of business must be to shut the entrance of such erperience as our situation permits, that Spain against fresh French troops ; and to kis heroic loyalty should inspire the umost harrass and destroy the that return from confidence, and that every general should Spain !0 france by this point, bare under his comnand Officers of merit, rigged local simulation of these provinces will particularly of artillery and engineers.-- be of singulat advantage in such a design, ! As a combined union of plans is the and these enterprises, it well concerted and ful of every well concerted enterprize, and carried into execution, will no doubt be. that which alone can promise and facilitate successful: and the same may be understood

of that there should be three generalissimos, troops which are in Portugal may come into I who should act-i concert with each other Spain, or by which French troops may enter 5 wone who should command in the four through Rolissillon into Catalana, fur there

tingloiss of Andalusia, in Murcia, and is not much to be apprehended for Arragon. - Lower Estramadura-another in Galicia, And, eren from Portugal, it is not thought

loper Estramadura, Old and New Castile, that they will escape, on account of the od Leofui another in Valencia, Armgon, proclamations which have been circulated in and Catalonia; a person of the greatest that kingdom, and the hatred which they credit being appointed to Navarre, the before bore 10 the French being encreased

Biscayan Provinces, Montanus, Asturias, without measure by the innumerable evils r Rinja, and the North of Old Castile, for the which they have been made 10 soffer, and

purposes which will be mentioned hereaf.er. the cruel oppression in which they are held -5. Each of these generals and general.. by them.-9. At the same time it would be isamos will form an army of veterans, verv proper that the generalissimo shouid traps and peasaniry united, and put bim. publish and circulate frequent proclamations self in a situation to undertake enierprises, amongst the people, and rouse their courage and to succour the most-exposed puints, and loyalty, siewing them that they have keeping up always frequenti coipayunication every ihing to fear from the horrible perfidy with the other generalissimos, in order that with which the French have dealt with all all may act by common accord, and assist Spain, and even with their king Ferdinand one another.-6. Madrid and L* Mancha VII. and that if they rule over os all is lost, require an especial generalis, to-concert and kings, monarchy, property, liberty, indeExecutę ihe enterprizes which their particu- pei.dence, and religion, and that therefore lar local situation demand is only object it is necessary to sacrifice our lives and promust be to embarrass the enemy's armies, to perty in defence of the king, and of the take away or cut off their provisions, to attack I country, and thosyl oor lot (which we

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hope will never come to pass) should destine destroy our holy religion, as they have hii. us to become slaves, let us become so therto done, and will always continue to do fighting and dying like gallant men, not so long as the spirit of perfidy and ambition giving up ourselves basely to the yoke like which oppresses and tyrannises 'over tbeni sheep, as the late infamous government shall endure." JUAN BAUTISTA PARDO, would have done, and firing upon Spain and Secietary." By Order of the Supreme Junta. her slavery eternal ignaminy and disgrace.

LEON. France has never domineered over us, nor When we behold the great and poble re. set her foot in our territory. We have many sistance which is at this moment opposed by times mastered her, not by deceit, but by the provinces of Galicia and Asturias, to the force of arms; we have made her kings projects of the basest and most execrable o prisoners, and we have made the nation

tyrants, it is impossible to believe but tha tremble--we are the same Spaniards; and they must be seconded by all, who, like France, and Europe, and the world shall themselves, have a sovereign to avenge see, that we are not less gallant, nor less sacred rights, and a country to defend. Still bravo than the most glorious of our ancestors. should any be restrained by fear; should any -10. All persons of education in the pro- fail to concur in the sentiment which call vinces should be stimulated to frame, print, them to arus against an unprincipled op and publish frequent short discourses, in pressor, it will sufficiently determine then order to preserve the public opinion, and if we recal to their memory what Spain owe the ardour of the nation, confuting at the to the virtues, to the courage, to the he same time the infamous diaries of Madrid, roism of Pelage, to the valour and to thi which the baseness of the late government patriotisni of Rodrigue Diare de Bivar.has permitted, and still permits to be pub- These two great men, one from the pro lished in Madrid itself, and has caused to vince of Asturias, the other from that c. be circulated abroad, detecting their false- Castile, were called forth at different epo hoods and continual contradictions ; let them chas, but both equally difficult, each to pre cover with shame the miserable authors of serve our country from a foreign yoke 1 these diaries,' and sometimes extend their their characters, and to the sentiments ( remarks to those Charlatans, the French enthusiasm which they excited in ever Gazeteers, and even to their Moniteur : and breast, does Spain owe the glory and th let them display and publish to Spain, to all happiness which she has so long enjoyed.Europe, their horrible falsehoods and venal Should the government of Asturias discote praises, for they afford abundant matter for that any part of the inhabitants take u such a work. Let all such perverted minds arms coldly or indifferently in the defence i tremble at Spain, and let France know that the country, let it address to them those sen Spaniards have thoroughly penetrated their timents which thc immortal Pelage addresse designs, and therefcre it is that they justly to the citizens, to his brave companions i detest and abominate them, and tbat they arms, when a formidable and cruel enem will sooner lay down their lives tban submit wished to subjugare them to his power :to their iniquitous and barbarous yoke. It is no longer time to deliberate," sai 11. Care shall be taken to explain to the this virtuous and courageous Spanijard, unde nation, and to convince them, that when circumstances nearly resembling the present freed, as we trust to be, from this civil war, “ the nature of onr cause, the situation i to which the French bave forced us, and our affairs, and those of the enemy, requir when placed in a state of tranquility, our promptitude and activity and that we shoul lord and king Ferdinand VII. being restored not waste our time in useless deliberatior to the throne, under him and by bim the We arm to re-establish our altars, our reli Cortes will be assembled, aluses reformed, gion, our glories, the liberty of our childrer and such laws shall be enacted as the cir- of our friends, of De country to place i cumstances of the time and experience may safety the bouour and chastity of our wives dictate for the public good and happiness. to rid ourselves of the yoke of a conquero Things which we Spaniards know how to base as he is cruel, who has covered himse do, which we have done as well as other with our spoils, and under wiose drea nations, without any vecessity that the vile dominion our lives cbeid Hot boast the secu French should coine to instruct us, and, rity of a momentzelt ever opportunity de Eccording to their củsion, voder the mask curred 10 tenpt a most glorious eltérprist of friendsliip, and wishes for our happiness, this is the moments this moment in whic

we ate assembled, united; bound togethe this is to assassinate us, tolo Solare our women,

, our laws, ud our king, to scoff at and ! ye of the Vallies! Hear our determinatio to arm, and join yourselves to us. Those | been saved. What has not hitherto been even, whom the love of tranquillity hatla done, may yet be achieved ; but for that bitberto deceived, and still retained among purpose there must be unanimity among the Moors, I now behold ready to break principals, and a reunion, wisely combined, their fetters, and join those who has- of all our forces and of all our means-Withten to accomplish the great purpose of their out this concurrence to retain our country's struggle. The Moors in short are occupied welfare, without the most resolute courage with great projects; but for us, necessity to drive from her borom a cruel and perdi snould put an end to indecision, we have dious enemy, like an enslaved people, wo taken the first step, there is no longer time shall lose our fleet, our arsenals; our army to retract; already they march against us; will be disbanded or sent into Germany, while we hesitate to place ourselves in a dis- our militia disarmed, our clergy despoiled position to drive the enemy from our moun- and destroyed, our churches pillaged, our trios, we shall be surrounded, we shall have altars profaned, the lands of our grandees no escape, and we are too great in number confiscated, our commerce ruined, our posa to subsist upon the stinted produce of bare sessions beyond sea no longer belonging to and sterile rocks.-Come on then !God, our capital; the kingdom drained by eyora whose cause we support against the enemies mous contributions ; Spaid, in short, hapof bis name, will tight for as while we fight py and free under her kings, will be reduced for him, and the hand which has punished to the most frightful slavery - To avoid caus because we bave forgotten him, will for- lamities so dreadful, one only resource retify our arms in a war undertaken for the mains to us. It is to rally round the standhonour of his glory! Let us put our con- ard which the provinces of Galicia and of fidence in the jovincible strength of the Al- Asturias have raised, in defence of religion, mighty. I will lead you to bactle ; I will of justice and of Honour. Children of our ever be the first, and will require of you no- country! we will be worthy of ourselyes ; i thing but that of which I will set you an let us perpetuate the glory with wbich our

example,"This harangue, so suitable to the ancestors are covered: great, like ihem, let occasion, produced then the same effect as us think no sacrifices too much, when we it will produce to-day. At the voice of Pe bave our liberties to preserve, the massacre lage, all, the Asturians took up arms, each of our parents, or our friends, to revenge, la of them performed prodigies of valour ; Can oor wives and children to defend. If, to the

fabria and, Galicia severally sent deputies, shame of the Spanish nation, there have paying to be admitted into the confederas been found men, such enemies to themselves lion of Asturias they were received, their and to their country, as to hasien to the feet means united, and the Moors were conquer of the tyrant, and prostitute before him their ed Three hundred' and thirty-nine years existence and their rights, let us nevertheless afterwards. 1 Spin bad asiother defender; hope, that the chiefs of the Spanish league thuis, maro Rodrigue Diare de Bivar, a fierce will not like Pelage, have to guard against and Boble Castiliani chef the city of Burgos. designs such as those of the archbishop of This vir nous, citizes and gailant warrior, Seville, who was base enough to berry his barning with desire to secure the liberty of faith, his God, his king, and his country.

countryos pled not besitate to remonstrate Let us endeavour to believe, that the great with, animation in avicomeil where the and Jaudable example which the bishop of King of Casiile himself presided. He said he' Oviedo and of Compostella have afforded, was asbamed to deliberatel upon the preten. shall be followed, not only by all those in the tods of ihe emperou Henry IDs; - that the in- | kingdom, but likewise by every member of dependence of Spainiwas established" above our respectable clergy, secular and regular, Il titles ! dihat base.ISpaniards alone could who, alike interested as the ministers of reAdmit of its being compromised toothat it ligion, and as good citizens, to punish crime, should be upbeld. even wat we expence of life, to accelerate the triumph of virtue, and to and that he would declare birdselt lae enemy preserve Spain from the disgrace and oppres

that may whoishould advise the king to sion of a foreign yoke !-Signed by the memberpisa isa Justras: If thé Brinde of Peace, Þers of the council at Leon, May 17th,

instead of betraying his soverpigwand bis 1808. sopisyy had trade the foresightoke loyalty,

ADDRESS TO THE FRENOH, g the energy of tho txio-graat menuwe hate FRENCAMEN --You possess no longer einised the pretensions of Buonaparte, ther'laws or liberty, nor any good whatever ; de those of Henryis would have been re- with streams of blood shed by yourselves Seired with indignationbuldas the Moots and your children, you have been compelled

kere, under Philip, 180158he French would to enslave Europe. A family, not French, bere been expelled, cand. Splait would have reigns over you and several European na

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