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fighting for the liberties of their ccuntry, country can reqnire. And the saine law will ever be greatly superior to any merce- can finish artillery in any numb:r, and pary enemies, even number for number, provide for its education. can for man, whenever the battle comes to But, Sir, there are some amongst us who be decided by the bayonet, yet, in ma. are, it seems, troubled with an aporehension, noeuvring and tactics, regular troops who that all this gallantry of the Spanish people are soldiers and nothing else, and whose is to prove of no avail towards bettering whole time is devoted to soldiership, ought their political condition. They see nothing to have a superiority over a patriot militia, encouraging in the nature of the contest; who are citizens as well as soldiers. On nor any thing to hope as to the result. Difthis account Spain will probably augment fering in opinion on these points with those her regular force. But the more she re- by whom such sentiments are entertained, Hects on her present situation, which im- and wishing every question now applicable periously demands every arm that can wield to Spain to be brought into discussion, as, a weapon, the sooner she will discover that
in niy judgment, such discussion were good her main reliance must not be on regular both for Spain and for England, the followarmies. In proportion as her defenders ing observations solicit a place in your
Reball be numerous, she may dispense with gister. muperior skill in manquvring; for, after First, then, touching the nature of tho all that ever wis or ever can be advanced in contest, I do not apprehend, that, on the support of military science in manany. part of ihe Spaniards, the war against the ring, such science is but a substitute for p!!y. Buonapartes is a mere war of the priests, for kcal strength, whereby the regular gains the preserving the sway they have over the Hanks of his less expert adversary, or some minds of the people, which would soon equivalent advantage: but when the contest ceuse under a French government. Neicher is between an army and an armed nation, can I be persuaded, that all the exertion and the flanks of the latier never can be turned. animation I see on the part of many SpaIt is superior in front; it will soon have a niards of rank, in ronzing their countrynin great force on each funk of the invader ; to arms and leading them to battle, is a ind, if he dare to advance, it must likewise mere facrious effort for either restoring the occupy his rear with troops through which corruptions of the Bourbon governinent, or
can cut his retreat. In short, for placing the government exclusively in wder circumstances in which mancurring the hands of the aristocracy. an be of no avail, the time and the money Some individuals, indeed, may be wholly that have been spent in their acquisition influenced by selfish and factious motives; have been thrown away; for the invader und some tincture even of such motives may cannot avoid a decision by the bayonet, in possibly be mingled with moregenerous sentiwhich case, as before observed, he must ments in the minds of others; but, from the be, man to man, inferior; and wher, like- peculiar nature of this case, so calculated in wise, he must be surrounded by thrice or four all respects 10 inspire a real patriotism, aod times his number, his destruction must be furnishing so glorious an opportuniry for the as certain as any densonstration ia Euclid; complete deliverance of Spain, it would be for, independent of the operation of the an impeachment of the common sense and bayonet in the hands of an enraged people, taste of all the enlightened ren of that naavenging themselves on mercenary instru- tion, as well as of their virtue, to'believe ments of despotism attempting their subju- they could resist the temptation of being gation and slavery, inraders, once hemmed real patriots on such an occasion. In what in by surrounding armies of patriots, cannot other way can a Spaniard, at the present long have either food or sleep. When we juncture, rise to enjinence? Spain must are comparing regulars and a patriot mili- either receive the French yoke, or she mot tia, it is always to be presumed that the resist. She inust either fall, or triumph. latter are to be taught to use fire-orms, so as There is no medium. And she has no to destroy enemies without danger to friends, means of a successful resistance, but in arms and the necessary tactics for each man keep and liberty. Is not this enough to fire every ing his station in any necessary evolution of Spanish mind with patrio: virite? And his battulion. This is very soon tanght, and when that bigh-minded people shall have this is all that is essential, except inere at- thus, after a bloody struggle, repelled the tention, and a steady obedience to what is French usurper, will it be possible for their ordered.
Law, and a sense of the necessi- leaders to descend from that lofty freedom ty, must therefore soon make as good sols | they must then possess, to crouch again undiers of a patriot militia as the defence of a der the despotism of royal drivellers, or the
infamous corruptions of Godoys? This is
This is sist France, must be all powerful to recover what I cannot believe. On the authority, those ancient liberties which the Spanish. indeed, of one who is near the scene of ac- nation, with extreme indignation, saw forn tion, I am taught to believe, that, notwith- fro:u them by Charles V. and his gloomy standing the respect paid to the name of sun? And when the French armies shall Feremand VII., the object of the most dis- be repelled, and the modelling of the gotinguished leaders is a complete reformation vernment shall be in the hands of the vicof government, as a basis of real liberty : torious patriots, without either the presence and it seenis reasonable to conclude that this of royal personages debauched by powe", must be the case, when we refiect on the their corrupt minions, to counteract their gigantic power of the invader, and on the designs for ile public gcoci, can any hurra imposibility of animating the penile by any | being doubt of iveir best endeavours to tra other hope or motive, to that patience under blish it on the solid foundations of political suffering, to that enthusiasm in the cause, liberty, protected by a national Cortes and to that contempt of danger and death, Upon the whole, in the armed populatia which are indispensably necessary to suc
I see the materials of success; in the gerer.! cess.-- And why are we not to conceive junta, just assembled, the means of orga – it possible that eren in a Roman Catholic nizing, harmonizing, and directing the country, and one in which the nobles do materials; and, in their dow free press, ti... not want pride, a priesthood and a nobility mental nutriment for supplying energy and should be capable of patriotismı? Those enthusiasm.c. The honest mass of every nobles who secured us Magna Charta wero people, who have virtue enough to fighti: proud enagb in all reason; they were fio- their country, are erer friends to free suman Cahulics, and had moreover at their vernment; and all they want is leaders ir head a Romish priesi, archbishop, and car- sufficient knowledge and integrity, for predinal --- Stephen Langton. But the fact is, | ferring what is intrinsically good. that wh. ever miglit be the leaning of their A little refiection on the constitution of own inclinations against popular freedom human nature, and on that faculty of reafrom the prejudices of their respective or- son which places ils above the condition ci ders, they were in a situation in which they the brute creation, will convince us that had to choose between favouring real public this must be so. And there seems poo liberty, and submitting their own necks to ground for concluding, that, on the picer, a laief :and disgusting yoke. And are not occasion, there is sufficient virtue amor tie priesthood and nobility of Spain now in the higher classes in Spain, to establish ih. [ $? pre ticament? So much, then, for union between the nobility and the conthe nelle of the contest.
mons, the u'unt of which caused the loss of Icme now to the hopes which may be their liberties under their former monarck , entertzner of a beneficial result. What, and the peculiar degradation of the nobles, indeed, is there not to be hoped for, when At the period now spoken of, there was we see a mion, as one nian, fly to arms, among the commons.of Spain more knor. on an attempt against its independence! I ledge on the subject of civil government peifocily well know the essential difference than among any other people in Europe, there is, between independence and liberty : those of England not excepted; and, had --between Spuin being except from the not the extravagant pretensions of the nobidomination of France, and enjoying a truly lity, imbibed from the feudal system, which free government of her own choosing. U:- had proved the bane instead of the preserier der a governenat merely Spanish, that go. of the ancient liberties, then prevented a vernment mighi indeed be independent; / cordial union between the two classes, Spain while the nation night be enslaved; as would probably have set an example to Spain lately was. But is it to be believed mankind, which was reserved for England that her despotic government under the a century and a half afterwards : I do ret Bourbons having ben annihilated, and the mean of expelling a tyrannical king; Lit whole nation having taken up arms to save of declaring the rights of a people, and lay. itself from the despotisin of another family, ing thereon the foundations of goreromeli. Spain slould be so besotted, as to wade Between the eyenis alluded to and the prethrough her own blond to place herself in sent there are striking resemblances. The her late abject slavery again? Those who Spanish “sovereign was absent from his du. have faith enough to believe this, inust be minions ; by the ill conduct of bis minisas expert at believing as any pope on earth ters he had lost the esteein and affection of could wish. Is it not evident, that the his subjects; the people, exasperated by armed union, which shall be suficient to re- many injuries, had taken arms, though with
ou concert, almost by general consent." Unfortunately, Sir, " the nobles, who, Taeir first care was to establish some instead of obstructing, hui tavoured or conform of union, that they might act with nived at their proceedings, while they congreater regularity, and pursue one common fined their demands of redress to such grieva end."-" Assuming the name of the holy ances" as had proceeded only from kngs Junta or association, they proceeded to de- and ministers, no
sooner perceived that liberate concerning the state of the nation, their own exorbitant privileges, especially and the proper method of redressing its the exemption of their estates trom ali pidgrievances." Happily for Spain, in the pre- lic taxes, were thonght grievances, than ent juncture, their king cannot now fol. they fell off from the cause of reformation la the example of her then absent mo- and liberty, and, by siding with the crown march, who, in circular letters to all the against the Junta, encouraged Charles in cities, endeavoured by mild but insidious the prosecution of his views; whereby he knguage to divert them from their purpose; in the end completely established that an owhile, to the nobles, whom before he had lute dominion which has now for nearly Teated with contempt and endeavoured to three centuries kept their order in a state of Imble, he wrote others “exciting them mortifying degradation, and lain «o heavily
appear with vigour in defence of their on the loins of the whole Spanish nation. an rights, and those of the crown." By When too late, they became sensible of Iese letters, by seeminý concessions, and their error; and it is to be hoped that their ther flatteries, he but too well succeeded | posterity of this day, who have now the piib his order of men.
most favourable opportunity, that was ever &" The Junta, relying on the unanimity presented to the patriots of any nation, to lith which the nation submitted to their establish its freedom on sure foundariors, hthority, elated with the success which will prove more vituous. The bitter reitherto had accompanied all their under- membrance of the despotism that has been kogi, and seeing rio military force collect experienced, with all its oppressions and
to defeat or obstruct their designs, aimed aboninations, which have in all ways proved a more thorough reformation of political | the direst curses of their country, must bases." What we in England have called surely have power to inspire them with a Bill of Rights, they termed a Remon- sincere desire of now cordially uniting with trance. It contained between thirty and the commons, in a dispassionate view of orty articles, amongst which were these ; those principles of government under which
That no foreign troops shall, on any pre. the rights of all classes are secured, and by ence whatever, be introduced into the which the political liberty, prosperity, and ingdom;" doubtless meaning to prevent happiness of a nation can alone be provided ldiers from the king's German dominions for. I do not mean to disguise, that the bing brought into Spain to favour arbitratry Spanish commons of that day, wben they Bigos; " that all new offices created since discovered fraudful practices for counteracte death of queen Isabella (Charles's granding their patriotisın, were in some instances other) shall be abolished ; that the crown more governed by their passions than their all not influence or direct any city with reasons; thereby furnishing the nobles with gard to the choice of its representatives ; an apology they eagerly caught at for their Athat no member of the Cortes shall re- conduct in not baving united with them ; ive an office or pension from the king, which, had they done in time, would doubt. ther for himself or for any of his family, less have secured to the robility every mod:ader pain of death, and confication of his fication of the “ Renonstrance,” which ods; -- that each city, or community, could in reason have been required. iall pay a competent salary to its represen
When, as I have said, it was too late, the tires for his maintenance during his at- Spanish nobles, in the year 1539, then senndance on the Cortes ;-that all privileges sible of the error of their former conduct, bich the robles have at any time obtained,
" demanded a conference with the reprethe prejudice of ine commons, shall be sentatives of the cities concerning the stale Boked ; that the lands of the nobles shall of the nation,” and made representations to e subject to all taxes in the same manner the king; but he was then become too 3 those of the coinmons ;--that indul- strong for their united opposition. He disences shall not be preached or dispersed in mi sed the Cortes of Castile, then assen he kingdom until the cause of publishing bled at Toledo, " with great indignation," ben be examined and approved of by the and " troin that period neither the nobles Cortes;-and ibat ihe king sheli ratify, and vor the prelates have been called to these old as good service done to him övid in the assemblies, on pretence that such as pay no. ragdom all the pruceedings of the Junta." part of the public taxes, should cinim ne
vote in laying them on. None have been of any of its proceedings, either rotes d admitted to the Cortes but the procurators opinions, either in print or writing, eve or representatives of eighteen cities. These, by a member of the Cortes, was to be pa to the number of 36, being two from each nishable as an act of insurrection. After 20 community, form an assembly which bears attempt so diabolical, it shouid seem proba. no resemblance either in power or 'dignity ble that ere a Buonaparte can be established or independence to the ancient Cortes, and on the throne of Spain, the nation must are absolutely at the devotion of the court in more than half exterminated. It was then all their veterininations."
that he was to improve upon the govern In the constitution manufactured by Bo- ment of the Bourbons! It was thus that naparte at Bayonne, this skeleton of repre- was to reform Spanish abuses! It was the one sentation, for a nation of 8 inillions of souls, that lie was to exalt the character of Spag is carefully copied; whereas, in the year among the nations ! 1390, forty-eight cities of only Castile sent In my last letter I touched on the their deputies to the Cortes, to the num- sentials of such a government, as can al ber of 125, as they chose more or fewer confer freedom on Spain, and enable her according to their population ; and it made | defy the power of the Corsican. The part of the claim of the national Junta above- essentials are, a national arming on the tri mentioned, that each city of Spain should principles of freedom, and a legislatives send three.* _The circumstances of governo sembly on the true principles of represent ment, and the state of the national revenue tion. In neither of these particulars muy and expenditure, not having in those days, Spain expect full instruction, from rect opened the eyes of mankind to all the uses ring to her own annals in times past. of legislative representation, the Spanish respect of the former, her best model Junta of 1520, demand « that the Cortes the Holy Brotherhood, or Santa Herma shall assemble once in three years at least, dad, first instituted in the year 1260. TI whether summoned by the king or not, and was a mere voluntary association of the shall then inquire into the observation of the ties for protection in travelling, and articles now agreed upon, and deliberate con establish a martial police, for reforming to cerning public affairs;" and here again nearly anarchy, rapine, outrage, and murder three centuries afterwards, and when, for the which had grown out of the inherent purposes of salutary government, annual fects of the feudal system, and the freque legislation is become as necessary as an ar- civil wars between the crown and the ne nual harvest, the Corsican lawgiver was lity, as well as between baron and bar pleased to grant, that the Cortes shall neet | The association was supported by contri once at least in three years; but he took es- tions exacted from each city; it raised pecial care that it should only assemble by considerable body of troops ; it pursued
the his order, it should neither be dissolved, nor Although displeasing to the nobles, it prorogued, nor even adjourned ; and he was root ; and so well answered the ends of to dismiss it when he pleased; so that, al- institution, that it acquired a sort of though its meeting should have been accord- scriptive establishment, insomuch, that ing to the letter of such a constitution, the afterwards received the entire coantenind moment it should attempt to deliberate on any of Ferdinand, as a valuable counterpora point not pleasing to the king, who would against the barons, whose power he desire be sure of the earliest intelligence of what to reduce ; and he even extended its auta was going on in such an assembly, of whom rity beyond those parts to which it had its president was to have been of his appoint- that time been restricted. On one occas ment, be was to have the power of dissolu- the Hermandad furnished that prince
Its vores were to be taken by ballot; 16.000 bests of burthen, together so that no member could know bow anoiber 9,000 men in conduct them. It has sti! voted. lis sitting, were not to be public; existence in Spain, for purposes of polc so that noconstiruents could have the small- but when this institution is compared win est knowledge how their representatives that of the English posse comitatus, who conducted themselves; and the publishing was coeval with the constitution, and the
fore an elder brother to the feudal systeex * It appears from the Magna Charta of and which, under the organization of Altre John, signed in the year 1215, that there became the most perfect system of per were then four knights of the shire in each the world ever experienced, while it English county; a circumstance overlooked not only consistent with, but the very soul by the Yorkshire reformers in 1780. of political liberty ;--when, I say, the S;
ish Hermandad is compared with the Engo of former times in Castile, touching represh posse, it is too defective to serve as any sentation, it seems that the city of Toledo, Jodel for the present day; whereas that and perhaps others, did not even elect their ncient institution of our own country deputies; but that the citizens çast lots, and asts only to be revived and cherished as it those two on whom the lots happened to fall, serves to be, to constitute the most per. served in consequence. The absurdity, howa defence of which a nation can by any ever, of such a proceeding became apparent, 39ibility be capable ; for, it is to be re- when, during a public agitation between the ein bered, that it does not exclude the em- Emperor Charles and his Spanish subjects, of ment of any number of regular troops or on a point atfecting their liberties, the lot hich exigencies may require, and it is ca- fell on two persons koown to be devoted to ble of furnissing every other species of the Flemish faction. On this unfortunate artial force that can be wanting, and un- event, the citizens refused to grant a comsuch discipline as the safety of the state mission in the usual form ; and proceeded
render necessary; and notwithstanding to elect two other deputies, whom they emmeglere it experiences, because of its powered and instructed to repair to Comfic twingi wality with national liberty, postella, in Galicia, to protest against a e by whom it is understood, know it to Cortes for Castile being there held, av
the only system which, in the day of against law. I cannot, however, omit an 21, can put at the disposal of the govern. admirable practice which ought to be in use ent the entire strength of the nation ; and with every nation that enjoys representative ith such admirable effect and precision, as freedom, it was the custom for a Castilian bring into action, for the public detence, deputy, when he returned from the Cortes, ery particle of the physical strength of its to assemble bis conui:vents and give them polation, with perfect order and regularity, an account of his conduct. The quotations Now, Sir, with regard to a future repre- made from Spanish history are from Dr. Roptation of Spain in a Cortes, it is certain, bertson.--I remain, Sir, &c. et although she may look back to periods Enfield,
J. CARTWRIGHT. freedoin with instruction as well as with 27th sept. 1808. ride, she has many reasons for not binding erself down to any precise precedent in
OFFICIAL PAPERS. er ancient practice ; for, prior to the æra CONVENTIONS IN PORTUGAL.- From the hen ber political liberties were overturned, London Gazette Extraordinary, continued here had teen to general Cortes for all from Page 513. paia, and there were material diversities Art. 1. There shall be from the present
the laws of ile several kingdoms of which date a suspension of arms between the pain is at his time composed. Down to forces of his Britannic majesty and those of at æra likewise, representation had been his imperial and royal majesty Napoleon I,
among the northern nations, which in order to treating for a Convention for the ore down the Roman empire, rather as an evacuation of Portugai by the French army. adisputable right, then as a system of re- - II. The generals in chief of the two ined policy ; rather as that which they felt armies, and the admiral commander-in-chief Obe necessary to liberty, than that of which of bis Britannic majesty's fleet off the bey had studied the nature as a science. mouth of the Tigus, shall tix upon a day is not therefore to be wondered at, that whereon to ineet on such point of the coast Spain, as well as in every other nation to as shall be thought fit, in order to treat for which representation was known, its dis- and conclude said Convention.-II. The ribution was not originally regulated by river Sirander shall form the line of demarcorrect notions of equality; nor its purity cation between the two armies : Torres and independence so guarded, as experience Vedras shall not be occupied by either. has known to be necessary. It has been IV. The commander-in-chief of the British only in consequence of the wicked and an
army shall engage to include the PortuCeasing arts and efforts of arbitrary princes guese armies in this Convention, and their and corrupt statesmen, either alrogether to line of demarcation shall be fiou Leira 10 Tob the giation of this shield of freedom, or Thurmur.---V. It is provisionally agreed, to render it useless to the people, and an that the French army shill in nó casele instrument of mischief in the band of the considered prisoners of war; that all thore prince, that the learned and the virtuous of whom it consists shall be conveyed in have studied it scientifically, as by far the France, with ar:03 and baggage, and : Jl most important branch of civil government, their private property of every descrip:i.!!, Ledi to a free militia. Among ihe defects no part of which shall be wrested lium