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35 appears from the opinion of my lord and reason, must have given him much Mouotnorris, who considered the criticism satisfaction. These events are the more gra50 extremely clever, that after having read Lifying, inasmuch as he shall confess, thật it, and the work to which it referred, chap- he had not contemplated Spain, as the counter by chapter, he says, “ I should bave try in which a successful resistance to France bought the one, but for the other ;" which is was most likely to originate. The grand equivalent to his having said, that he thought aim of his essay was to awaken his own the volume, to which the criticism referred, country to a sense of her danger, in trustnot worth buying; and, if you think so, / ing her defence too much to a standing army; gentlemen, you vill find a verdict for the as as well as to the excess of her imprudence, defendants.

and even criminal indifference, in suffering One of the Jury.--Is there any thing in her ministers and parliament to evade, in the defendants' book of a libellous tendency, respect of arming, the clear principles of by way of personal attack on the character of the constitution, without remonstrance or the plaintiff, unconnected with his publica- expostulation. Those of our statesmen tions?

who talked of armed citizens being only Lord Ellenborough. Something bas been depositaries of panic," and of an orgateferred to of that kind; but nothing has nised population being to a regular army of been laid before us in proof of it. The invaders" an unresisting medium,” may plaintiff appears to be placed in a ridiculous now feel that they have errors to acknow#tuation, in a groupe of figures. He might ledge; but the author of the Ægis is well brve been so described by words.

content with the Spanish illustration of his thing had been said of this plaintiff reflect- English text. It is not a little to bis purpose ing on his character, uncovnected with this that, prior to the fall of the Spanish Bourbook, I should have told you that, in my bons, and the Prince of the Peace, the aropinion, it would have been a libel; but we mies of Spain had never been held up to us bave po proof of that.

as models, formed in the school of the great One of the Jury.--If it be contended, that Frederick ; that the Corsican had arifully there is any personal refection upon the drawn the Aower of the Spanish army, plaintiff, in this book, unconnected with his such as it was, out of the country, and emWritings, we must go through the contents ployed it in the north of Europe; and that of it.

with bis in Auence at Madrid, we may be Lord Elleni orough. We have no proof sure that that army had, for a considerable

time past, been neglected as much as possiThe jury without a minute's consultation, ble. We knew not, indeed, any thing of returned a-VERDICT FOR

THE DEFEND- its strength ; but have seen no evidences of

its having been considerable. It has been Lord Ellenborough.-I hope nobody will stated to us, that Castanos himself was at bnderstand, from the result of this trial, first only at the head of 3 or 4,000 men ; that there is the least countenance given to and, either in postscript or a note to the Slander nor to ridicule any author, any letter of our own commissioner, Capt. more than any other individual, unless such Whittingham, reporting the surrender of ridicule le connecied with his works, and the Dupont and Wedel, we were told that“ one buthor is embodied with his work; for courts

“ half” of the Spaniards were peasantof justice are as tender of the moral charac- “ ry." Be that, however, as it may, lers of all men, whether they be authors or we have grounds for uoderstanding, that a not, as they are firm in maintenance of the junction of the English force of 6,000) men tight of every individual, to give a free under Gen. Spencer was offered, but deopinion, on every pullication of a literary clined by Castanos, who felt justly confident

of his strength; when we know the firma

and dignified conduct of the Spaniards, in.. Madog CARTWRIGHT ON NATIONAL declining English assistance for reducing the Defence.

French fleet at Cadiz, our private intelli., ;-You very rightly estimated the

gence respecting a sinrilar conduct in the. feelings of the author of the Ægis, when other case becomes the more credible. Had you concluded that the events in Spair., Spain been provided with a regular force, (which have shewn how a nation is to be in any degree considerable, a place of such defended, and how Europe is to be deliver importance as Saragossa could not have been , ed) as proving that the principles laid down in wholly without them ; and yet Palafox, that work, were the principles of nature Captain General of Arragon, in his letter

that there is.

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to the council of Castile after the retreat of to her, were but Germany a free and an the French from Madrid, expressly says: " armed nation. *"

Regarding myself, I have been more criti- A stronger contrast, between the effect of cally situated than any other commander, right and of wrong principles of defence,

being without a single soldier, and placed. than what we have witnessed in the north " witbin jinmediate reach of the enemy, and the south, human history cannot afford. from my proximity to his frontiers, and The instruction I hope, will not be thrown " liable to be attacked from Catalonia,

away upon us. Were the emperors Frapcis Castile, and Navarre."--Although Spain, and Alexander, ruling over about sixty milso different from the cases of Prussia, Aus. lions of the European population, to give tria, and Russia, was completely taken by their debased subjects real freedom, by the surprize ; and had her country, from Pam. introduction of representative assemblies, peluna to Cordova, absolutely in the power of like the cortes of Spain, or the house of French armies, and a French force also mas- commons of England, and were they liketer of Cadiz, before she knew that Napo- wise to organize what we call a posse comiJeon was her enemy ; yel, to her immortal talus, would not France be instantly striphonour, we hear but of one instance of the ped of all her terrors? Would she not theo armed population, which of course had

see sprung up around her from the south to been very bastily collected, giving way in the north of Europe, an adamantine wall of battle ; and even then the disaster produced warriors; a wall she could not pass ; wanino ill effect ; the patriots soon rallied, and ors she would have no stomach to provoke? the French veterans were shortly after con: Could any longer kings or emperors tremquered and made prisoners. Even where ble, when the Corsican lion put out a paw, the general was " without a single soldier," or was heard to growl? And would they so far are we from hearing that his armed not then contemplate him with the same patriots were a mere " depositary of panic," composure as we contemplate a caged lion in that the French armies in their repeated the tower? Would the licentious soldiery of attacks Saragossa were uniformly France, half monkey half tyger, any longer repulsed with great slaughter ; and Pala- scamper over all countries doing ridiculous fox was

abie to make detach. mischief mingled with rapine and carnage, meots to Catalonia, Navarre, and other authors of human calamily, objects of bu.

provinces," as he himself states. The man curses? Would her terrified tributario Frencb emperor indeed, like a certain Eng- any longer snbmit to her insufferable arra lish statesman, judging an armed popula- gance? Would any prince out of the pas tion, to be an unresisting medium " to his of France thenceforth dare to play she tri invincibles, directs his deputy usurper to rant? Would any people endure it? And proceed to Madrid, and very coolly appoints would not the French themselves, too little The time for his arrival; but, by the counter- sedate for teachers of liberty, then be taugk march which was so precipitate, as borely it? The pillaging occupation of their alg to allow time for packing up the stolen rega- mics gone, they would no longer feel the lia, it is probable those two great men, curee of conscription. Their vain-glorious Napoleon and Mr. Windham, may by this humour no longer played upon to tbe format time have changed their opinion, on the of Earope, and their energies compressed subject of "an unresisting medium.Very within national limits, those energies night far am I indeed, from pretending to superior be expected to recoil upon the artful tyrant, discernment; but, I lay claim to have point- who has misapplied them, extorting from ed out ten years ago the right means of effect- him that sober, solid liberty, of which is ing " the deliverance of Europe;" my craft, aided by their vanity and vices, has words were these : “ Turning then to the hitherto defrauded them, ' map, we see Europe of a size to take care Such, 'Sir, I take to be the rational pro" of herself; adverting to the constitutions cess for effecting Europe's deliverance; and of the governments which are opposed to as infallibie as it is simple. On no other “ each other, we know, that it is by alliance, principles can it be effected. As to a mere “ not with the English treasury, but with balance of power between despots, to as " their own degraded subjects, the courts that by the name of deliverance, would be “ of Austria, Germany, and Muscovy, may a profanation of the faculty of speech by “ effectually withstand the arms of France. which we are distinguished from brutes. Il “ Whether the frontiers of the republic be on right principles we cannot be aidinga " marked by a Rhine, or a rivalet, it were " in the way of hostility, equally impassable * Appeal, 2d edit. p. 269.

even

extending true deliverance beyond the Py- | wrong. If too inveterately despotic to

in the counsels of despotism ; let her decline main themselves the slaves of the Corsican ! its pernicious alliance; let her not repeat her Not with my consent should in that case an espensive follies, by joining in its corrupt English guinea be spent, nor a drop of Eng. and hateful projects ; let us leave the weak lish blood be shed, to better their condition. and the wicked to fight themselves the bat. If too much of tyrants to give, for the sake tles of their own selfish ambition; cleaving of their own emancipation, freedom to their with warm affection to our new allies, and people, they deserve to be hurled from giving them our best counsel and our best Their thrones, and the sooner the bet. aid towards the establishment of their liber- ter. Should that happen, their subjects ties.

might probably enough be roused, as the Spain, having for her salvation snatched Spaniards have been, to assert their own up her arms, has at this moment actual free- rights. Tame and patient under the tyran. dom. The mode of its presesvation is sim- ny to which by habit they have submitted, ple. She has only to give permanence to French impertinence and insolence might her arms-bearing, by an organization of prove a cure for their phlegm, and proroke her population to that end, on the principles ihem to an overwhelming resistance; which of an English posse comitatus ; and to reno- must produce that deliverance of Enrope, Fate her cortes on principles equally simple. of which their contempribl: sovereigns had These being the foundations on which her been incapable. future liberties must stand, her first cortes The distinction between spurious and geinght to assemble under instructions from nuine wisdom, which is so beautifully intheir constituents, to make these che primary culcated in Scripture, was never perhaps pbjects of attention, as the fundamentals of more conspicuous that in what we have beir recovered constitution. Spain, so act- witnessed, touching Europe's deliverance. ing, will have nothing to fear from France, Sovereigos, statesınen, generals, and the Brhough abutting upon her

very soil and tera

sages of diplon acy, having neither thought ritory, all the way from the Bay of Biscay nor cared about honesty and morality, much o the Mediterranean sea, a distance (accord - less the liberties of mankind, and being ing to some maps) of nearly three hundred confouuded by the failure of all their unnaniles, Could this be the case with any des- tural projects, are completely bewildered : Hatic government so circumstanced, whose but the moment it is taken up by a people, ubjects felt no interest in its defence? But as a question of human right and human med, free, and proudly independent, may feeling, the mystery vanishes, and the pracpain stand, despising the Corsican's utmost ticability of the object with ease and cerbwer, as much as she must abhor his per- tainty becomes manifest. This is one of dy, and disdain his alliance. What she those things which, although long hid from as to expect, should her arms and her free- the wise and prudent, is now revealed to it be again neglected, she well knows. babes. lith such an ally, so strong in Europe, so As expeditiously as could reasonably be ch in America, and with the command of expected, we see all the provinces of Spain e ocean, we may be well content, But about forming a common junta, for giving e must recollect that England is only sepa- union and consistence to measures for the ted from France by a channel, which, as common goud; and things everyı: bere barier, 'is more easily passed than the Py: tending also to the formation of one grand. hnees; and that, unless we benceforth en- national cortes. But, recollecting what the

with this ally the virtuous lists of emula- sword has done for them, they inust never in, in perfecting our own security through forget their obligations to it. Between des

medium of arms and liberty, we shall fence by law's, and defence by the sword, It her do our duty to them, nor to ourselves, there is this distinction: the former can be y to our posterity.

managed, and is best managed, by represenSo acting, how could England and Spain tatives; but the latter cannot. The nation long without peace? And so continuing which bires a solliery to fight for it, gives act, must not such peace have in it the itself masters instead of engaging servants. inciple of permanence, whatever might Legislation is the office of the few, selected : the conduct of other powers?

for wisdom and bonesty, and requires only Should the despotic sovereigns be too void periodical meetings in a single ball or cham

intellect, and too much the tools of cor- ber : but defence, whether against riot, inpt statesmen, to be capable of acting surrection, rebellion, or invasion, is equally sht, that cught not to induce us to act the business and thx duty of all who are able

arms.

to use a weapon; and is not perfect, unless -a secret, the earlier knowledge of which there be permanent and equal preparation might have saved our country hundreds of at all times and in all places; according to millions, streams of blood, and no small the admirable principles of our posse comi- mortification : and what must it not have tatus. Every country inust have arms and saved to the suffering continent? Jaws, that is, its sword and its parchments. After the full light which the magnificent If the parchments be stolen, the sword atchievements of the Spanish patriots has compels the robber to surrender them back : cast on the questions of national defence but when the sword is ouce stolen, the rob- and European deliverance, we must be ber is sure to take the parchments also; and curious to observe the future conduct of our a government once become despotic, soon own statesmen, relative to those objecis. becomes weak. Always keeping in mind | Will!hey be any better disposed than herethat the superior energy of the Fiench army tofore to a right system? Will they open was the immediate effect of liberty, and was their eyes to the truth? Or, will they obafterwards kept up by genius, feeding its | stiaately shut them, and resist conviction, vanity with viciory after victory, over armies by still appearing ignorant that liberty is the which had not a like energy, let us turn our proper motive, and arms in free hands the attention to the states which France had 10

proper means? If they cannot shew that encounter. Had the feeblest of these, Prus. the former is not the right motive, and the sia, been free, we may easily conceive, froin laiter not the right means, how can they what we have seen in Spain, tvat her repose avoid using their honest endeavours to would not have been disturbed; whereas, reform the infamy of our electio:s, to purge notwithstanding the bigh reputation of her the land of its abominable borough corrup troops, we have seen her conquered eyen be. tions, and to renovate the ancient vigour fore the enemy entered her territory; and of the constitution, in its posse comitatus that, by a force not consisting or one French- Keeping in mind, that a balance man to fifteen Prussians capable of bearing despotisms is not a deliverance of Europe,

To humble Austria, took only one hope that Englishınen will be no more ipan to twenty, of those wbich freedom taxed, for hiring emperors to fight in would have brought into the field; as to re- cause, in which triumphant success vouk duce Russia herself to a condition so depen- only rivet more closely the fetters of thei deat that a saucy Frenchmar, at St. Peters. own miserable subjects.-I. reniain you burgh, was more like the prime minister of obedient servant, .J. CARTWRIGHT the Czar, than the ambassador of another September 6, ISOS. state, did not require one French soldier to thirty fighling men of those Rus ians who

OFFICIAL PAPERS. were able to draw the sword. Such is the Russians in FixLAND The following ! radical weakness of despotic governments! extracted from one of the official Report

While warring only with brother despots describing the hideous Proceedings of the Corsican, Sir, seems the very enchanter Russians in Finland.. Dated Husa, Jd of a romance. He smites the pompous a. 14, 1808. chinery of his foe, it is shivered to frag.

as the Swedish troops we ments, and he marches onward, as though koowo to approach Wasa, the civil gore none had opposed him. But the moment nor, Emine, and the coinmandant of he meets armed freedom, he is constrained town, major-general Kniper, as well as B to halt, his enchaotcents fail, and victory, deputy major Stegeman, decamped, so the under whose guidance he had been the major-general Demidoff had the comman scourge of tyrants, now wives the banner there during the engagernent; when the of liberty in hostility, bis legions are given was over, and the Swedish corps had to the edge of the sword, or to captivity, treated, the inhabitants, who had been a and himself to slame and anguish of soul; posed to all the horrors and mischief of those rery, Jegions which had mowed down

coutstant fire of musquetry and canoor as stubble the regular defenders of despotic which kiiled and wounded many in the törones become themselves stubble to em. houses, expected some respite; but alma battled patriots. Thus the chains, with immediately after, general Demidoff gar which she perfidious Corsican thought to orders to plunder the town, which was dom have irrevocably bo'ind to his footstool the in the most cruel and diabolical manner, un Iberian nations, there to aduainister to his der his personal direction and presence; 30 restless ambition, are suddenly snapped that of the civil governor Emine, and gener asunder, and the whole secret of Europe's ral Kniper, who had returned, when the deliveranc: is seen io bemarms and liberty ; found that their army bad retaiged posses

As soon

sion of the place. These scenes of murder, taken from the inhabitants, so that none of wanton cruelty, and devastation, continued them had a single fire arm left.-In the until the 30th of the same month, without country about the town, the conduct of the the least intermission, except for a few enemy was no less cruel and barbarous ; they hours, while lieut.-gen. Rajewski happened plundered and burned villages, destroyed fields to stop in his way through the town, who ex- and meadows; insulted the unhappy inhabipressed his utmost detestation at their con- tants; inconsolable widows and morning duct, and gave orders ibat ihe sacking and children; fathers, sons, brothers, and friends, plundering of the town should cease ; but carried away and punished in the most abo. he had no sooner let the town, than these minable manner; grief, lamentation, misery, murderous proceedings recommenced, and and despair, and the town itse!T, formerly so the soldiers divided inemselves into larger flourishing, now plundered, are the first oband smaller bodies, and thus occupied ihe jects that present themselves to the traveller, whole town. Their usual mode of piocced- and inform himn by what sort of enemy these ing was, to fire a voller of nusquetry

places have been visited.--N. E. Von through the windows of the houses, and SCHOULT2.-Dep. Id. lieut. of Ilie county of then to rush in, and with the bayonet de

Wasa. stroy whoever was to be found that had not time, or could not hide themselves in the

PORTUGAL

Proclamation ly the Comcellars, ander straw or rubbish in the barns, manders in Chief of his Britannic Maouthouses, lofts, or garrets, and afterwards jesty's Forces, eitployed to assist the loyo to plunder and carry away whatever was of al Iniabilants of the Kingdom of Poilue any value. --All windows, furniture, china, grl. Daled Lavos, Aug. 4. glassware, and every article that could not People of Portugal, -The time is arrived be removed to answer any of their purposes, to rescue your country, and to restore the were broken and utterly destroyed, and all government to your lawful prince. His tbis under the eye and presence of the offi- Britannic majesty, our most gracious king cers, who went about, and encouraged them, and master, has, in compliance with the calling out dobra (bravo), raruscho (charm. wishes and ardent supplications for succour ing). No distinction whatever was made from all parts of Portugal,' sent to your aid a as to churches or a hovel, between the high- British army, direcied to co-operate with est or lowest of the people; ladies of dis- bis fleet already on your coasts.-The Enge tinction, women and children of all sorts, lish soldiers who land upon your shores, do the sick and wounded, the aged and prison. so with equal sentiments of friendship, faith, ers of war, all fared alike, all were treated and honour.--The glorious struggle in which in the most inhuman, cruel, and detestable you are engaged is for all that is dear to man, nianner, and all were plundered. The sup- the protection of your wives and children, plications, upon their knees, with tears and the restoration of your lawful prince, the intreaties of many of the most respectable independence, nay, very existence, of your Jadies in the town, to obtain safeguards, was

kingdom, and for the preservation of your treated by that worse than wild tyger gen.

holy religion : objects like these can only Demidoff, and that complete monster be attained by distingnished examples of man form, governor Emine, who were gal- fortitude and constancy.--The noble struggle loping through the streets to give vigour and against the tyranny and usurpation of France activity to the havoc and devastations carried will be jointly maintained by Portugal, on by the soldiers, with a broad grin of con- Spain, and England, and in contributing to tempt, or the most brutal conduct, and at the success of a cause so just and glorious, best with unmanly threatenings," that if the views of his Britannic majesty are the they ventured to say a word, the town should same as those by which you are yourselyes be burned, and levelled with the earth."-As animated. (Sigued) CHARLES Cotton, a barefaced excuse for ihese cruelties, and

ARTHUR WELLESLEY. for this irreverence to the Swedish nation,

Proclamation of the General commanding the Russian commander alledged that some the Porluguese Army, to the Soldiers of of the inhabitants of the town had fired the French drmy in Portugal. from their houses on the Russian troops--an

Soidiers of the French army! The moaccusation equally false ar:d mgrounded as ment is now arrived to speak openly to those the report circulated by some evil-minded who hitherto have refused to listen to the persons, that the inhabitants of the town language of reason. Open your eyes, hạd fired from the windows on the Swedish Soldiers, to the deep abyss of evils which troops. All weapons in the town and be. have grown under your feet, through tho longing to private persons were long before foolish ambition of your emperor, the in

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