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than from the united zeal for proselytism of executed, and to excite resident country all the sects; and those who pretend to be so gentlemen to the same laudable exertion. Alstaunchly her friends would better evince the low me, Sir, to introduce another case to sincerity of their professions by endeavouring the notice of your readers as a further stiinuto bring about a reform, than by joining in lus.-The parish of Mitcham in the county the factious and vulgar bawl of “no popery." of Surrey, had for many years been sufferWhen the offices of the church are thus con- ing the dictatorship of-Methodists and memisidered as so inuch property which, without bers of the Suppression of Vice Society ; regard to the duties annexed to them, may be under whose government the poor were fed bought and sold, how can we be surprised on cheap provisions, rice and dried herrings ; that offices in the state, and seats in the a walk was raised two-fifths of a mile over House of Commons should also be taken in the common, for the saints to visit and pray to the estimate of individual wealth? They with the idle and profligate at the workare all abuses belonging to the same system, house; eternal complaints were made by they have a common origin, and are em- the paupers to the bench of magistrates, ployed for a common purpose. Do you ina- the rates were from 12 to 14 shillings in the gine, that when a reciory is sold, the wel pound, and the parish were nearly 3700 in 1are of the parish is consulted ? Far from it: debt.--About 5 or 6 years ago a Mr. Moore, you might as well suppose that attention the lord of the manor, having some hunis paid to the interest of the public, when dred acres of freehold, and occupying some places and boroughs are transferred from one bundreds more, felt the increase of poor possessor to avoiher, No, Sir; it is well if rates oppressively binself, and listening to ibe parish do not suffer by the change. the complaints of the neighbourhood, al

There are, I am aware, some cases which forin though he had an exemption froin parisha bonourable exceptions to his character ; but cflices, yet offered himself to be one of so few are they, as to be scarcely worthy of the overseers; having held the ofice for 3 mention, unless it be as examiples of private | years he paid off the old standing debt, reexcellence exerted for the public good. -We duced the rate from 5s. to 5s, 6d, and leit are taught to regard our ecclesiastical and 100 in hand though the rate was burilieved civil establishments as monuments of the with the half bounties for millia men, and visdom and virtue of our forefathers with the maintenance of their wives and families, more propriety may we look upon them as which had not been the case in his predecesthe remains. But when we hear that the sors' time ; though he apprenticed cut with friends of this

s young nobleman, or that young parish fees between 30 and 40 of the cbii. commoner, who has wasted his substance dren who before had been “ fed with the jo riot and extravagance, are about to provide “ bread of idleness," and though he at 2 forbim by procuring him a living, a place, or very considerable expuce repaired the worka borough, how can we avoid being reminded house.-His tirse step wits to compel 2-5: of two stupendous alnishouses, where high- of the able but idle paupers to maintain bæn mendicants are charitably received !, I themselves, who had been supported with. request your attention, Sir, to the foregoing out work at public expense, nerely be leiter, and am, with every sentiment of res- cause they affected sainiship; the rest, vio pect~ A FRIEND TO RADICAL REFORM.- were not incapacitated by age or infirmit, Liverpool, Aug. 20, 1808.

were employed in labour according to the Poor.-MITCHAM.

abilites. No householder was excused para SIR ;-As the reduction of the poor's ing rates for religious or political party's rate is become an object of such national sake; every man rening above £5 per concern, not merely on pecuniary conside

was compelled to pay his share rations, but because it tends to debase and of the burihen; the lower orders thereby enervate the minds of the lower orders of feeling the obligation they were under to the the pecple, who were once considered, and larger renters for their larger share of the ought now to be the strength of the compulsive subscription, wbich they were country, I was pleased to see you relate least likely ever to be benefited by them. in your valuable work, an account of some selves : thus the poorer part became congentlemen who had been successful in les- cerred in keeping the rate low; while the sening the burihen, and reforming the abuses actual paupers were rendered more comfortof their respective parishes. You gave this able, are better ted and clothed, are keps relation in honourable testimony of their in babits of industry and led to sober Zeal, to shew the thing is practicable if ably' of religion. (To be continued.) Printed by Cox anet Bilyiis, Great Queen Street; published by R. Bagsiaw, Brydges Street, Covers

Garden, where former Numbers may be had : sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Milie, Pall-Mall.


VOL. XIV. No. 11.) LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1808. [Price 10D.

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“ Curls are not cannons; hair-powder is not gun-powder, tails are not bayonets. Are these the arms and

anmunition, by which the enemies of Russia are to be defeated !"- -SUWAROFF. 385)

-(396 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. been so long held in other nations, and PORTUGAL. Of the victories, obtained parricularly in the southern parts of Europe. over the French, in Portugal, by the Eng. Thirdly, it will confirm the confidence of lish army, under the command of Sir Ar- the Spaniards, will make them even bolder thur Wellesley, and wbich victories are de- than they were, will make them despise as tailed in the official papers contained in this well as hate the French. Fourtbly, it will sheet, it is annecessary to attempt to speak not only diminish the military and pecuniary in praise ; but, as far as we can judge from means of Napoleon, but will reuder him the accounts yet received, they certainly re- timid; it will make him hesitate ; it will flect the yreatest honour on the army as well fill him with apprehensions; it will enervate as on the commanders of every rank. It his councils; the consequence of which was, in my opinion, fully proved before, may be his total overthrow; particularly as that our Troops, when well commanded, were his rigorous maritime and commercial regufar superior to the French troops. I never lations are so severely felt in all the countries regarded the assertion of that superiority as under his control. Amongst the minor an empty boast. There were always reasons consequences of this victory (taking for why our troops should be intrinsically better, granted that it will lead to the total evacuaand there was abundant experience to verify tion of Portugal by the French) will be a the theory. But, now, I should imagine, speedy and bloodless settlement of our disit will be very difficult for the French, pute with America, which is costing us though masters of the press of Europe, to something in precautionary measures. The prevent that fact from being acknowledged American trade to Spain and Portugal was all over the world. In this point of view very great; and to trade thither now, as slone, then, our success is of vast impor- well as with the colonies of those couniries, tance. The victory, though not more glo- we can, if they behave well, give them rious t) the nation, is, in ihis as well as in leave. -The merit of the ministers in other parts of its consequences, near and sending out this expedition, in their plan of remote, of far greater importance to us than operations, in their choice of a commander, the victory of Trafalgar, which gave no new and in every part of the enterprize, no turn to the war, excited no great degree of man of a just mind will, whatever be bis feeling in the nations of Europe, and did sentiments in oiher respects, attempt to not, in the least, arrest the progress of the deny. They would, if the thing had failed, French arms or diminish their fame or that have been loaded with no small share of the dread of those arms which universally pre- blame; it would, therefore, be the height of vailed —The consequences of this victo- injustice to withhold from then their share ty will be, first, a thorough conviction in of the praise. Indeed, it cannot be denied, the mind of every man in this kingdom, that almost the whole of their measures, that the French, when met by us upon any with respect to foreign countries, have been thing like equal terms, are pretty sure to be strongly marked with foresight, prompti. beate n, which conviction will produce a tude, and vigour. Their Orders in Council, confidence in our means of defence which against which Mr. Whitbread, Mr. Roscoe, did not unequivocally exist before, it will and the Barings, so bitterly inveighed, have dissipate all the unmanly apprehensions about been one cause, and not a trifling one, of the threate ed invasivo, and, of course, it the events in Spain and Portugal, into which will, in a short time, relieve the country, in countries we could not have entered had not great part at least, from the inconvenience the people been with us, and that the people and distress, which, in so many ways, arise were with us, arose, in great part, from from the present harrassing system of inter. those despair-creating effects, which were nal defence. Secondly, this victory, gained produced by the Orders in Council, which under snch circumstances, will take off from orders they could not fail to ascribe to Napoabat dread, in which die French arms have loon, nor could they fail to perceive, that,


as all

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while he possessed their country, there put: can England esist independent, and in was not the smallest chance of their being | defiance, of all the civilized world, or Telieved from those effects. How false, she not? This question, the most interesting then, have evenis proved to be the reasoning that ever was started, has now been decidcu, of Lord Grenville and Mr. Roscoe and Mr. and for this decision, so glorious to us and Baring, that the Orders in Council would to our country for ever, we have to thank make us detested by all the suffering nations, the inen who are at present in power.and would tend to strengthen the power of But, if these victories, and if a continuation Napoleon over them! I could easily refer of success, is not to have the effect of dito the passare, wherein I contended, that minishing the sacrifices that the people make; the Orders in Council would naturally have if they are not to put an end in time, to the the effect of shaking the authority of Na- system of red-coat arming and forts and bare poleon in the couquered, or dependant, rachis, in England, I shall regard them 35 states, by producing unbearable distress. I, being of little use. I do not expect or wishi, indeed, wished for a still greater stretch of that these precantions, little as I may think maritime power. I wished an interdict to of their efficacy, should all at once be thrown be issued against all those not in alliance with aside; but, I do hope, ihat, as soon

I wished the whole world to be told : reasonable men are perfectly satisfied, that " As long as you suflerFrance to command all there is no longer the smallest danger of in“ the land, England will command all the sea, vasion, the ministers will begin to sbew a " and fron that sea, she will permit none disposition to restore tlie country to its for. “ of you to derive any, even the smallest mer state of confidence in itself, to abridge

advantage, or comfort.” But, without the enormous expences of an establishment this, the ministers really have done what which now costs about twenty millions are they said they would do; they have brought nually, and to render the ruling influence things to a crisis ; they have got rid of that less of a military nature. The army, or at benumbing, death-like lingering, which had least, the part of the nation under military been the characteristic of our warfare for so rule and influence, is too large to be consis many years ; and, if they follow up their tent with the principles or the praciice of blows, it is not impossible, that, after all freedom. Regarded as the means of an the senseless admiration which has been emergency it is not so odious; but, if it bestowed upon speech-making ministers, were io be attempted to keep such a ford we may see the conqueror of Europe, the on foot as a permanent establishment, we king and queen maker, toppled from his might, at once, bid adieu to the hope i gtool by the Duke of Portland. ---Now is ever being a free people, and, in fact, we the time to recall the public attention to the should have made all these sacrifices, and doctrines of Mr. Whitbread and Mr. Ros- our countrymen would have bled, only fire coe. I should now like to see, from the pen the purpose of forging and rivetting our own of the latter in particular, an essay on the chains. By degrees, which succeed ecco wisdom of making peace in 1806, and other very rapidly, a military nation gets ille ano:her upon the inoderation of Napoleon, to a military government. It is quite ime both of which were the subjects of his dull possible to separate the things in idea, and pamphlet. I should like now to see him at- as impossible to separate them long in fact, tempting to convince the manufacturers, that They are interwoven in their nature.they would have gained by a peace made in The expence too is enormous. Every parent 1966, and tliat they would have enjoyed their who leaves a hundred pounds in legacies to gains in peace and safety. His doctrines, his children, has to reflect, that six cr serea, luckily for the nation, did not prevail. The of those pounds are now deducted for purcommon sense of the people taught them poses of a military nature. To maintain that his doctrines were false. He could not such an army, with all its numerous retudmake them see any prospect of real peace; ers, and all its pretences for expenditure, and, though the conqueror was still borne must alone, in time, leave the individas upon the winge of victory; though a refusal proprietor little to call his own. In sbort, to submit to his terms was followed by a it must eat him out of house and home. still greater extension of his power and of our Therefore, in rejoicing at the success of the danger, yet the nation said, “ go on he must army, in applauding the wisdom and bravery if he will, for, until the state of Europe be of all concerned in the enterprize, I mux chingel, England cannot enjoy a moment's say, that no small part of my satisfaction real peace." By the measures of the present arises from the hope, that, in the end, this ministers, the great Westion, which every success, with the others, by which I tret

it will be followed, will produce a diminution

one w

on was at once clearly

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of the army and its expences. That we that, because our newspapers laugh at hin, should continue a military nation, as long as he is really, all at once, in consequence of the necessity exists, there can be no doubt ; the loss of thirty or foray ihousant gali, beand, that we should afterwards have a gene- come an object of con enpi. The internal ral and permanent plan of military defence aft:irs of Spain cannot be casily arrange and is wliat I wish for ; but, that we should have settled The patriois lareironounced beir a large permanent army, commanded by old government in infamous one; they have officers appointed and cashiered at pleasure ; stipulated with the people for a refurin of ibat we should have such an army an hour aluses; they hase demanded un assembling longer than is absolutely necessary to our of the Cortes. If there are no interested security from the attacks of a foreign foe, I motives to cume au wart the intended reforkope no man will be found to assert ; es- mi?'ion, the little confusion that will arie pecially after the glorious example given 11s will be of no consequence; but, if there by the patriots of Spain, who bave proved to are; if private interesi and not pubic good the whole world, that a people rising in de.. be the object of the leduers, Napofence of their country, though without dis- leon will yet be king of Spain and the In cipline and without appointed leaders, are dies, in spite of all that we can do io the cry inore than a match for the bravest and inost trary. I am, I must confess, sorry that!

poleon does not seem disposed to senci itdSpain.-In speaking of the probability of mies into Spain I wish the war there to Buonaparte being overthrown, and in ex- be long and arduous; for, if it cesse now, pressing satisfaction at that probability, I the people will have gained very little inmust always be understood as including the deed, especially if any of the rags of the old condition, that his sway is succeeded by a government are brought back again. Nay,

gurernment; because, if people are to it is very probable, that they may be worse be slaves, it is a circunstance of no conse- treated than they were before. The despois quence at all wbom they are slaves to, ex- will conciude, and with reasoo, thai the cept that it is less dishonourable to bend the people are fashioned to despotism., They knee to a famous conqueror than to a silly will have got a new lease of eir enjoya creature, who has never done any thing but ments and their abuses; and the people will eat and drink. If the nations, who, to all be more wretched than ever, All the old appearance, are breaking his chains, hare corrupt crew will be in p::wer. There will the wisdom and the virtue to drive out des. be no example given io ihe enslaved natious Dutisas of every sort along with him, then of the world, except that of a people having they will and ought to succeed; but, if the shed their blood for the apparent purpose of wars against bim be carried on by a cabal, perpetuating their own slavery; of cailing b; a faction whose object is to exalt ther- back despotism amongst then, after they selves, they not only will fait but they ought had got rid of it. A struggle of some to fail. The work of opposing hiin is but length would have made the people of Spain Just legun. What is done is nothing, if not think no more of FERDINAND than they Fiell followed up. To be sure, a defeat of would think of a fly. Such a struggle him who has so long been accustomed to must have called up hidden talents and viro meet with uninterrupted success is an excel

Now there appears to be a sicklident beginning. He has, however, been ness in the councils of the Juntas; aud defeated before nuw; and his army, under of ihis, it is very probable, Buona parte may other commanders, has been defeated : yet, take advartage. What we ought to wishi be recovered that; it produced little injury

for is a new and vigorous government in to him in any way. What line of conduct Spain ; a geveronieni upon principles prehe

may adapt with regard to Spain and Por- cisely the opposite of those whereon Napisfagal, whether he may send large armies leon's government is built and maintained; Anither, or may leave them for a while to La goverunient that would be a living examSee the result of those internal differences ple to all the nations whom he has enslaved. which be may naturally expect to see arise,

Bebas in his clutch:s the chief of that goand wbich he will not fail to endeavour to vernment which we scem to desire tur foment, is quite, uncertain. It will, how- Spain. Who is to make him give that chief ever, be a great error in us to act as if we up; and, if he does it, upon what conditions supposed, that he had given up the idea of will be do it?, it is easy to see what a turplacing kings of his own family upou the moil must arise out of this single circumthrones of Spain and Portugal. He is not

stance. While Ferdinand is in France, uneasily turned from any of his projects; and less all idea of making him king be abanit would be a dreadful mistake to suppose,

doned, there never can be any peaceable


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settlement of affairs in Spain. If, in the of legitimate right to reign, or they must midst of those divisions of opinion that will openly avow the doctrine, ibat the people inevitably arise, as to what ought to be done, have, at all times, a right to cashier their Napoleon send an army of a hundred thou- kings. As to saying, ihat the Spaniards sand men, bis brother will be seated upon chose the son of the old “ unworthy" king the throne with very little difficulty. It ap. as the English chose the son-in-law of their pears to me, therefore, that the thing to be unworthy king; the very existence of soch desired, is a n«w governinent, established as persons was a matter of accident. Suppose soon as po:sible, unless Buonaparie imme. these kings. had had neither sons por sons. diately send his armies; for, in that case, in-law, were the people to have gone to be there will want very lille :if government until niore distant relations? Suppose they had the war be over, and then it will be found, been able to find no distant relations; what that the talentsand virtues of the nation have, was then to have been done? Does dis of their own accord, formed the sort of go- right of cashiering kings, or, to use the vernment required by the state of the coun- more gentle phrase of the Morning Chrom try. There are some who talk of Ferdi, nicle, this right of " forcing kings to abting NAND as it he had been fairly chosen by the cate," exist only in cases where the said people of Spain, wbo had first put down bis kings happen to have relations? father. The Morning Chronicle, of the 2d people at Whitehall admit the right of cash instant, has, upon the subject, a long-winded iering kings? If they do not, where will article, which concludes thus: “ The Spa. they tind a justification for any attempt that " niards are tighing for their national inde- may be made by us to place Ferdinand upon

pendence, and tur their legitimate sovc- the throne, during the life of that far ben * reign-but what constitutes the legitimacy who protested against the violence, which " of Ferdinand VII.? That which made compelled him to abdicate? But, coupling ''s William III. tl:c legitimate sovereign of the cause of Spain with that of this nan " this country, “ the choice of the people." we get ourselves into difficulties, from which

They have set aside his failer by forcing it will not be easy for us to get clear. Na “ bin 10 abdicate bis throne, because he should I be at all surprized, if, bye-and-bye “ was incapable and upworthy to reign. we should see all our present bopes blasted “ Jostead of embarrassing themselves, like in consequence of some act of pertinacity " the French, with speculatire theories of relating to the sort of government which we government, they have chosen bis son as

or our rulers, desire to have established “ bis successor, as the English chose the Spain. son-in-aw of JAMES II. ; and we have not Duke of York.Ibad, I thought

a doubt, that their privileges will be as- entirely done with this subject in my

sured, as ours were, by a Bill of Rights. sbeet ; and I now revive it merely to poig • Their conduct ought to operate, both as out to the public a striking proof of la

a warning to kings, and an encourage- falsehood of the pamphlet there noticed.

ment to every periple ; and if princes do charges the daily papers with malice again “ not profit from the lesson, their subjects the Royal Chieftain. It represents them " will, we trust, follow the example of the encouraged by both the parties, the ins and

Spaniards."- Now, I should like to the ouls, to assault him; to misrepresenty know what evidence there is of the people | ridicule, and degrade him. Now, let us sed of Spain having given their voice for the

how this charge is justified by the conduct young king. Never has there appeared the of the official paper of the Opposition. The slightest foundation for the assertion. The paper, upon the first appearance of te people had nothing at all to do with the pamphlet, said : " It has evidently beca maiter. The old king was Turned out by a ** written under the eye, and published with band of armed men; he was, indeed, forced " the sanction, of the Duke of York. Nay, to abdicate his throne; but it was by a cabal we conceive, that it must have had its at court, and with which cabal the people concurrence of the highest authority in the of Spain had nothing to do. The son, have kingdom." Here, then, it unequirocally ing assumed the kingly office, afterwards ubimpuses the pamphlet to the dictatjon, dicates it in behalf of Napoleon ; so that, if not the pen, of the duke, and to the appro be really was chosen by the people, he gave bation of the king on the 2d instant up what the people had given him, and Jo

this same paper ways :

“ We have already seph went to Spain in virtue of the people's “ noticed the public and authentic disavour choice. With those who stick to Ferdinand " of the “ Sialement " Jately published, here must always this embarrassment exist : “ under the assumed character of a *bey must either acknowledge in bim a want nf bis royal bighness ihe Duke of York


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