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Spain, Austria, Portugal, and Turkey, and brothers, and devised this project, to coneven before he had yet conquered Calabria, ceal from the French bis true intention, and and expelled from the Adriatic and the that he was dragging that nation into the Mediterranean the Pope and the Queen of field of slaughter, for the purpose of creaEtruria, could any thing be more ridiculous ting kings, atier having, in order that they and presumptuous than, under such circum- might get rid of kings, sacrificed three stances, to decree that the whole continent millions of the youth of France; and thus should shut its ports against the English, and he disguised the private interest of his own sacrifice its interests, commerce, and terri- family under the preience of the general in- , tory, because such was the sovereign plea- terest of the nation. This decree was, there. sure of Napoleon? The decree, however, tore, a political prognostic of the premeditawent forth; and the exalted imaginations of ted articles of the peace of Tilsit, and the, French visionaries already beheld the indus. division of Europe into two empires : trious Britons expiring under their burdens, Bonaparte taking to himself, for the present, and left to the mercy of the waves. What all that part of the continent which extends a ad picture did they give us of their situa- from the Vistula to Cortu, and is bounded i tion ! Great Britain presented nothing but by the Baltic, the Ocean, the Mediterranean, lasctivity, farine, discontent, and frequent and the Adriatic, leaving the rest to Russia : ipsurrections; and there were some who so that this project comprehended the conalrady behsil King George on his knees, quest of Spain, Portugal, Etruria, the Papal, imploring peace from the hero of the age, States, Denmark, and the Hanse Towns, the arbiier of the destinies! So great is and ulinately Austria, which was the only the influence of falsehord, under the reigothing wanting to complete his work of dee of ignorance ! But the English, thoughescom- solation. All were included in his decree tounicated by the bull of Buonaparté, instad of continental blockade ; and this was a of decliving, cuntimed to advance in riches sweeping expedient, in order to furnish a. and strength, whilst specie was disappear- decent pretence for the entrance of his are, ing in France and Spain; and the man of mies, whose approach would have been preOpulence was compelled to eat the same ceded by proclamations, atfirming.that they breakfast with the porter, for want of sugar, came only, to compel the common enemy toffee, coçoa, and other colonial commo- to keep within his own liinirs, and to con-, dities. The colonies, both Spanish and clude a maritime peace. The French apo, French, were, in consequence of this de- peared on the stage, and the performance crec, exposed to the manifest hazard of be- commenced ; and those who in the first act. ing revolutionized, and proclaiming them- performed the parts ot friendship and modem kives independent. Those of his allies, ration, in the second boldly threw off the who exist by commerce alone, would have mask, and represented the robberies and been compelled, as the only means of saving

frauds of their leader and his gang. The, themselves from total roin, to cast off the English, beyond all comparison wiser and protection and alliance of their lord Napo- more sagacious than the French, saw, in the leon, and his armies would have run the execution of the decree of continental Disk of being dissulved and dispersed, in blockade, the destruction of the monstrous consequence of there being no more money empire of France, and the recovery of the to plunder, nor kingdoms to conquer ; at freedom of Europe and the world. They the same time that having no maritime force protected their allies, and left the other powa to cope with the British, the latter would ers to be undeceived by experience. All of continue in the exclusive enjoyment of the them are accordingly undeceivel, and resolve commerce of the Indies; and the necessity ed to shake off the yoke. They open their, of obtaining the productions and manufac- hearts and their ports to the English, who are, tures of Europe would compel the inhabi- capable of afforving them, in the must genetants of America to open their ports to the rous and energetic manner, copious aids of English. The projeci was therefore ridicu- every description ; and on operi ng the comlous and chinerical ; and Buonaparté knew munication, they find that Great Butain, well enough that this was not the way to instead of being sunk into dejection and deprive England of the dominion of the poverty, is much more fiourishing and opuseas, nor to deliver the ports of the con. lent than before. They blush for having tinent froin blockade, and to retaliate in placed any coalidence in the French, com

for England had a force to keep plain of their seduciive proclamations, and us in a state of blockade, and Buonaparié for ever detest and abjure teir friendsh.p. had none to prevent it. But he longed to They acknowledge wiih shame the awsuid Conquer and divide the continent among his and extravagant course which they were



pursuing, in lending their aid to the conti- sidence, Vienna, June 9th, in the year nenti] blockade : they now hold it ip to 1808, and of our reign, the eighth year. ridicule, and swear eternal friendship to FRANCIS.---Aloys, Count Von Ugarte, First Great Britain.

Chancellor. Joseph, Baron Von der Mark. AUSTRIA.--- Proclamation issued by the Em. JOSEPH CHARLES, Count of Diedrightein.

peror of Austria, for organizing a Na. Joseph, Baron Von Kielmansegge.
tional Lerée en Masse. Dated Vienna,
June 9, 1808.

PORTUGAL.- Proclamation of the Duke of · We, Fr:ncis 1, by the Grace of God, Alrantes (the French General Junot) GeEmperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bo- neral in Chirf of the Army og Portugal, to hemia, Gallicia, and Lodomeria, &c. &c. the Portuguese. Dated, Palace of Lis. Archduke of Austria, &c. &c. We have bon, June 20, 1809. discovered to our beloved subjects, in on What phrenzy agitates you ? Into what letters patent, of the 12th ult. our design an abyss of calamities are you about to plunge attending the organization of the reserves, | yourselves ? After seven months of the namely, the defence of the monarchy, which most perfect tranquillity, of the most comis to be founded on such means as to afford | plete harmony, what cause have you to rush us the possibility of facilitating the finances 10 take up arms-and against whom? of state by a reduction of the regular army. Against an army which was to secure your - In this design we have found it good to independence, which was to maintain the organize a national levée in masse, lending integrity of your country, and, in a word, to defend the country. -We do, for this without which you would cease to be Pore end, choose a period when we are in friend- inguese. Who can thus urge you on to bely relation with all the powers of the Con- tray your own interests? Do you then wish tinent-for only then, if such measures are tliat ihe ancient Lusitania should henceforth ripely adopted, and cemented by time, can be no more than a province of Spain? What success be expected from then, in case they can you expect in a contest with an army, should become needful.--To execute these numerous, valiant, and inured to war, in measures, we have appointed plenipoten- whose presence you would be dispersed like tiaries, whose knowledge, zeal, and attach- the sands of the desert, by the impetuous ment to our person and the state, have been blasts of the south wind? Do you not per. repeatedly tried, viz. for Austria, Carniola, ceive that those who mislead you, look nog Carinthia, Stiria, Triest, and Saltsburgh, to what may further your interests, but our anlic commissioner, Count Von Saurau. solely to the means of gratifying their revenge -For Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, our and, provided the continent is disturbed, serene cousin, his Royal Highness the Arch- what signifies it to ihem how much blood duke Ferdinand, with our Upper Burgrave may flow? Should those perfidious islanders Von Wallis and Governor Count Lazansky. land on your territory, leave me to combat -For Lower Austria, and Austria on the them; this is the duty of my army ; yours: Ems, our serene cousin, his Royal High- is to remain peaceably in your fields. I pity ness the Archduke Maximilian, with the your error ; but should you persist in it, President Count Von Bissingen and Baron should


continue deaf to my voice Von Hackelberg. - For Gallicia, our gene. tremble ; your punishment shall be terrible. ral of cavalry: Count Von Bellegarde, and Can you regret a dynasty which had aban, the vice president of government, Count doned you, and whose government has so Von Wurmser. They have receired defini- humiliated you, that you were no longerrarked tive instruction as to the manner and time amongihe nations of Europe? What do you of execution, and will take the other re- wish for ? To remain Portuguese ? To be in quisite measures accordingly.-We expect dependent? This the great Napoleon has pro our beloved subjects, who have always mised you. You, yourselves, have earnestly shewn in a most laudable manner their un- entreaied of him a king, who, aided by the shaken devotion and fidelity towards us, omnipotence of that great monarch, night will acknowledge in that regulation the furi raise up again your unfortunate country, and measure of our paternal designs, and assist replace her in the rank which belongs to her to carry them into effect with all their might, Doubtless, at this moment, your new moas a measure inseparable from their welfare. varch is on the point of visiting you. He The activity and prudence displayed in this expected to find faithful subjects; shall be business shall obtain our special approba- | tind only rebels? I expected to have de tion, and recommend them who shall lau. | livered over to him a peaceable kingdom, dably distinguish themselves in this particu- and tourishing cities. Shall I be obliged to lar.--- Giren in our capital and place of re- shew him only ruins, and heaps of ashes,


and dead bodies? Would he reign over a inbabitants shall fire upon the French troops, desolate country? Certainly not. You shall be delivered wp to pillage, and totally would only be an unfortunate province of destroyed; and the inhabitants shall be puit Spain. Your customs, your laws, every to the sword. Every individual taken in thing has been preserved. Is not your reli. arms, shall be instantly shot.--Done at the gion ours? Has it suffered the slightest in- head quarters, in the Palace of Lisbon, Janne sult? Are not you, on the contrary those 26, 1808.-(Signed) The Duke of ABRANwho violate it? You yield to the seduction TES. and guidance of heretics, whose only wish is to destroy you and your religion. Ask the TUSCANY.-From the Paris Papers, July unfortunate Irish catholics what oppression

18, 1SoS. they groan under in their own country, and In

pursuance of an imperial decree, dated by the orders of their own government. the 12th of May, at Bayonne, an extraordi-, Is it not you who violate it, by obeying the mary junta is appointed in conduct the adinia ministers of that holy religion, (whose first nistration of Tuscany. It consists of general precept is obedience and submission to the Menou, the councillor of state Auchv and laws,) wben they dare to instigate you to the masters of the rolls Chaban, Dugerando, commit murder and assassination upon men and Jeanet, together with the auditor Balbe who lived in the inidst of you as brothers ? Eerton Crillon, secretary general. General Let them tremble! They will pay dear for Menou takes the title of governor, is invest. the calamities which they inflict upon you ;

ed with the chief command of the troops, but you, Portuguese, will be the unfortunate and will officiate as president of the junta. victims of their crimes.--If there still exist- According to a decree of the junta, the comed a few abuses in the administration, the mencement of the session of the exiraordiexperience of each successive day was dimi- nary junta will be notitied to all the civil and nising them. My decree of the 14th of military authorities of the three departments June has already regulated an interesting of Tuscany. The following proclamation to branch of the finances, by settling the pay the inhabitants of that country has been orof the soldiers on a sure foosing. The dered to be published and placarded all over mlaries of the administrators and judges the three departinents :-Tuscans! His maac regularly paid. The emperor Napolcon, jesty the emperor and king has been pleased satisfied, in consequence of my reports, to confer upon you the honour of being with the public spirit in this kingdom, has adopred into the great family, and of uniting just remiited the half of


contribution ; yourselves to the destiny of the empire formand it is at the instant that he is accomplish- ed by his genius. Napoleon the great a lopts ing all your wishes, that you permit your- you as his children, and the French salute Belves to be hurried away by the influence of you by the name of brothers.—This adoption a few miscreants ; it is at the moment of promises to you all the effects of the beneFeaping the fruit of your tranquillity-it is at hcent cares of our illustrious emperor-the the instant that happiness is within your protector of religion and morality.--You grasp, that you deliberately cast away from will be happy. You will receive you even the most distant hope of it. Well! a code of laws, which being the utta Portuguese, you have only the interval of

spring of wisdom and the experience of moment to implore the clemency of the ages, secures the rights of property, and the emperor, and to disarm his wrath. Already stability of families. Your agriculture and bis armies in Spain approach your frontiers ;

industry will fourish. You will restore to if you besitate, you are undone. Lay down Tuscany, the native country of a Dante, your arms; return in peace to your homes ; Gallileo, and Michael Angelo, the Athens imitate the tranquillity of your capital, and of Italy, that splendour which the Bellege the adjacent provinces ; follow your agricul- Lettres, the arts and sciences, of which it tural pursuits ; reap that fine harvest which was the cradle to modern Europe, fornitriy heaven has sent you, after so many alarms of conferred upon it.-Delegated from the a dreadful famine, from which I have been greatest of heroes and of sovereigns, our able to preserve you. Expel with horror

tirst wish is to merit your attachment. To from among you those wretched miscreants attain this purpose, we have notbing more to whose only object is the pillage of your cities. do than to make you acquainted with, and Merit pardon by prompi sub!nission, and a faithfully to tultil i he instructions which we prompt obedience to my orders; if not, have received. Your feelings have even anthok of the punishment which awaits you. ticipated our wishes; and already, pot less -Every city, town, or village, which shall than ourselves, your esteem, love, and adake up arms against my forces, and whose mire our illustrious emperor.---Tuscans!

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You are a good, a virtuous, and a loyal peo- is always to be worn, except in very hot ple. The emperor

know's and estcerns you. weather. (Signed) W. SHENER, Maj. A. Place your whois confidence in him. Let Assist. Adj. Gen. I. D. violent men of all parties beconie silent, and forego their absurd expectations. Let the Sweden.-From the Stockholm Gazette. brave, the wise, and the impartial classes Head-quarters, Gralsby, July 27 -His of persons unite, and as in all other parts royal majesty received yesterday the followof France, possess one soul and one heart. ing report from field-marshal Count Kling, It is by such conduct, that you will make spur, dated Head quarters, New Carleby, yourselves worthy of being the children of the 2016 jostant. Napoleon.

My last report was of the 9th instant, BRITISH ARMY.-General Orders. and was dispriched by messenger Brolia. 1st, The officers of infantry, with the Major Fleandt was since forced to retres exceprion of the mounted officers, are to from Peroo and Kockonsari, and to fall back. wear black cloth leggins when on duty, and upon Dainkas. By this retrogade movement at all inspections and reviews.-21, Office:s the rear of our army was so muci exposed, are to wear their hats straight when on the that nothing but a brisk attack on the eneparade or on duty, and pot with the corners my's main force, near Lappo, could ward in front.–31, The mounted officers of in- off the impending danger. I therefore 0:fantry to wear the shoulder belt and regu- dered major general Adlercreutz to take lation sword.—4!!, Lace on the skirts of the conmand of the triops asse:nbled near the officers' coats is contrary to regulations Lower Harma to attack the ene ny, which and must be discontinued ---56h, The staff was done on the 14th inst. with so much sergeants to be dressed according to regu- success, that victory, although dearly bought, la:ions: the sergeant-major, and quarter

declared in favour of your majesiy's (roops. master-sergeant, to be distinguished only in the enemy las retreated since that action to the minner pointed out.-ih, The bugle Salmi, and taken up there a stroog and advan horn players to be dire, vel as the drummers tageous position. Before the above ex of the reginent.--7ti), Toe men are to car- pedition against Luppo was undertaken, a ry their great coats at inspections and reviews, Svedish briga le, with a considerable park as likewise on all duties--Sth, Regiment of artillery, marched under the orders of not provided with frenadier caps and pioneer Cotonei Voi Esen from Sockloit to Dun appointments, are to be immediately sup kirs, to join major ficandt's corps, and plied.-gh, The plates on the caps of some make a diversion in that qurter; but tha of the corps, and the sergeants' swords and eneny's position was found so stroog, sashes, (the latter being crimson) are re- as to render an attack in front utterly iniposported contrary to orders. They must be in sible. I accordingly ordered Colonel Essen strict conformity to the king's regulations ; 1 to endeavour to turn the eneins; but before and the general officers will give orders ac- he was able to perform that movement, bo cording y, and see that they are complied received intelligence, that the enemy hai with.-10th, The clothing is to be made up left the above position, and was retreating, in strict conformity to the sealed patterns ; burning and destroying all the bridges immeand general officers, when inspecting regi- diately after he had passed them. Colonel ments, are enjoined to pay particular atten- Von Essen is in full pursuit of the enemy, tion on this head, and to report any devi. and I entertain some hope, that this operaation therefrom, for which commanding of- tion will soon force the enemy to quit Salmi, ficers will be made responsible.--It appear- and fall back to Kuortane and Alawo.ed some time back, on an inspection being Colonel Sandals has reported from Sawolas, made of the clothing of the militia, that that he detached major Aerenkihl, with 500 the coats of many regiments were mnen, in fifty small boats, to make an tight, particularly in the sleeves, as not to attack on nine of the enemy's gun-boats admit the waistcoat being worn, which was which had sailed from Kuopio : although the supposed to be the cause of the sickness object of this attack, to take the above gunwhich prevailed at the close of the last win- boats, could not be attained on account of ter, and the early part of the spring. The co- the enemy's superior weight of metal, and lovels must be caucioned with respect to the the wind coming foul, yet the enemy's gunensuing clothing, and the general officers boats were compelled to make a precipitate will be careful to see that the men have retreat to Kuopio.-M. Klingspor, - Field on the proper waistcoat with sleeves, which marshal and general-in-chief of the army.


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Vol. XIV. No. 9.]



Here, not to be corrupted is the shame."-POPE. 321]

(322 LETTER I.

have imbibed a thorough conviction, that,

until the constitution be again acted upon, TO THE INDEPENDENT ELECTORS

in substance as well as in form, with respect OF THE

to the electing of members to serve in parliaCITY AND LIBERTIES OF WESTMINSTER. ment, there will be, and can be, no really

useful reform, of any kind, take place ; St Austle, Cornwall, Aug. 22, 1808. that all the talk and all the attempts, relat. GENTLEMEN,

ing to abuses, will in future, as they hitlerIt is now sometime since I

to have, produce no other ultimate effect, hall the honour of addressing a letter to than that of causing new burthens to be you. Indeed, having completely extricated

laid upon the people ; that it is foolish to yourselves from the trammels of the regu- hope for any of the political changes, which larly drilled opposition, as well as from those

all good men would wish to see take place, of the ministry of the day; having, by until measures be adopted to give good men actions as well as by words, clearly proved a chance of having a voice in the returning of that you are no longer to be made ihe dupes those, who have the power to promote or to of any set of trading politicians, there re- prevent such changes; that, in short, while mained no longer any occasion for me to the source is foul, while that is poisoned by trable you with my advice. It is not, corruption, it must be folly in the extreme, therefore, with a view to convey to you or the basest hypocrisy, to believe, or affect either advice or instruction that I now ad- to believe, that the stream can be pure. With dress you. My object is to communicate to respect to the foulness of the source, gesethe cation at large facts, which I have re- rally speaking, there are few persons who cently collected, which, in time, may, if have any doubt ; and, except the EdinGeply imprinted upon the minds of men, burgh Reviewers and their disciples, inbecome of great public utility, and I choose, cluding your old friends, the Whig reformers, is the vehicle, an address to you ; first, be- there are no persons, not interested in the ause I am always anxious to show you trade of votes, who do not lament the exmarks of my respect, and, secondly, be- istence of the evil. All men have a general duse, as it will evidently appear from the notion of the vile traffic that is carried on quel, the conduct of the persons, of whom in Boroughs; but, notions received from shall have to speak, is of that sort which general descriptions have not upon the mind 04, above all other men in the kingdom, The same effect as those which are received ave a right to canvass and to judge of.- from a detail of facts, especially when that he subject is ibat, in which, more than in detail is of undoubted authenticity. For ny other, you bare, of late years, shown this reason it was that I attended personally hat you took an interest ; namely, the the two trials above spoken of, took down keans that are used for relurning Members the evidence with great care, and strictly the Commons House of Parliament; but, watched the whole course of the proceeda then you observe what part of the king. ings; and, in now communicating to you, om it is, whence I address you, you will and to the public through you, what tranat anticipate any very striking instances of spired and what took place upon this occahose salutary effects, which many persons sion, I am not without hopes, that some. lere sanguine enough to expect from the thing may be done towards the producing, xcellent example, given by you, of purity of that deep and general abhorrence of

these corrupt practices, which must precede On the 19th and the 20th of this month, the adopting of measures for their destrucBolmin

, in this county, and, it is the hoIn both of the cases, to which the trials lets, brought to light upon these trials, related, Sir CHRISTOPHER HAWKINS, Bro hat I am about to comunicate, having iken particular pains correctly to collect

ronet, was the principal party accused. The

first. was a prosecution of him and eighteen bem.--As for yourselves, you appear to

others (amongst who was a clergvnian)


I election.

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