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consents to acknowledge the neutrality of been supplied plentifully tollie French squa

Portugal during the present war, and not dron. The court of Portugal deties the “to oppose any measures tbat may be taken court of France to produce any fact in con“ with respect to the belligerent nations, tradiction to this assertion, which is founded * agreeably to the principles and general in the most exact and impartial truth.-laws of neutrality.”—The French go. France received from Portugal, from 1804 vernment from that time received all the ad- to 1807, all the colonial commodities and vantages of such a treaty; it never had oc- raw materials for her manufactures. The casion to make the smallest complaint against alliance of England and Portugal was useful the Portuguese government; yet was it du- to France; and in the depression suffered by ring the same war, and after such a stipula the arts and industry, in consequence of a tion, that it required of the court of Portugal, perpetual war by land, and a disastrous war not only the infraction of the neutrality, by sea, in which he only met with defeats, but the declaration of war, in violation of it was certainly a great advantage to France, all the treaties that had existed between the that the conimerce of Portugal should entfer two countries, and in which, in the case of no interruption ; undoubtedly it was equally war ackoowledged possible, it was determi- | useful to bot! countries. By ravaging Pure ned how the subjects of the two nations tugal, by subjecting her to excessive contrisbould be treated, and all tiis without Porobutions, in an unbeard-of manner, without tugal having any cause of complaint against war, or any resistance having been made on the British goverpment, which had even ber part, France bas pot obtained that adgiven it every kind of satisfaction, when the vantage, which a commerce, useful to boch commanders of its ships of war had failed countries, would have procured to her,—The in that respect which was due to a neutral court of Portugal might th·n justly, and fag. - The Emperor of the French, in the with every kind of foundation, Harter itself meantime, caused one of his squadrons, that that of the Thuilleries would respect a on board of which was his brother, to put neutrality which it had acknowledged by a to sea: It anchored in the bay of All Saints, I solemn creaty, and from which it derived where it was received with every kind of such decided advantages, when it was respect, and was supplied with all sort of awaked from its security, in the month of refreshment. Yet, what is worthy of ato August, 1806, by a formal declaration of tention is, that at the very time the French the minister of state for foreign relations, gorernment received, on the part of that of M. Talleyrand to Loral Yarmouth, by which Portugal, so many marks of friendship and the former notified to the latter, that if coasideration, the squadron burned some England did not make a maritime peace, Portuguese vessels, to conceal its route, the French go:ernment would declare war with a promise of indemnity to the proprie- / against Portugal, and order that country to be tors, which promise was never performed. | occupied by 30,000 men. It was not with Eprope may hence conclude the fate which 30.000 men that the invasion of Portngal awaits it, should the French government could be effxted ; but the Emperor of the acquire an ascendency by sea equal to that it French, who knew the security in which has obtained by laud, and may properly es. Portugal found herself, in consequence of timate the foundation of the complaints it the treaty of neutrality, thought he could 80 loudly utters against the British govern- take her by surprise, and this was sufficient nient. England never made any remon- to justitiy his proceedings. The court of Engstrances against the succours granted to the land was alarmed by the above declaration, French squadron, for they were within the and proposed and offered to that of Portugal acknowledged limits of the law of nations. all kind of succour ; but France, which ac But the minister of foreign rel:tions of that period bad arranged every thing to France has dared to assert, in the face of crush the Prussian court, which then alone Europe, that Portugal gave assistance to the bid defiance to the superior power of the English for the conquest of Monte Video Emperor of the French, while a twelveand Buenos Ayres; wbile it is a fact, known month before it would not attack, and perby all the world, that that expedition, which haps compel him to receive the lax, and sailed from the Cape of Good Hope, recei- suve Europe, jointly with Russia and Austria, ved from Portugal neither vessels, money, found means to pacify the court of PortuDor men ; nor, in tine, any merchandise gal, which he then chose to spare, and Considered as contraband in time of war; could not conceive that a sinuilar perfily and taat the English squadroni, during this could be the attribute of a power, whose war, obtained nothing at Rio de Janeiro, or greatness should keep pace with tha. integrithe other ports of the Brazils, except wbatry and those dignified sentiments, which

ud to any nation, and which had suit so well an exalled rank.--The war which was afterwards continued with Rus- | articles wounded equally his religion and sia, and which might yet perhaps have sa- the principles of morality, from which he ved Europe, if the union of the govern- never deviates ; and which are, perhaps, ments which divide it had been as close as it the true cause of the unshaken fidelity which should have been, still retarded the execu. he has experienced on the part of his subjecis

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, tion of the views of the Emperor of the --The court of Portugal then began to adopt French with regard to the court of Portu. measures for securing its retreat to that part gal; and it was only by concluding the of the Portuguese dominions which is not peace of Tilsit that the court of the Thuil- exposed to any invasion, the consequences Ieries, in a dictatorial tone, such as might of which might create alarm. For this purbave become Charlemagne, addressing iho pose, it ordered all such ships of war as princes whose sovereign lord he was, caused worc fit to keep the sea, to be fitted out the strange demands to be made to the court and also directed all the English to leave id of Portugal, through the medium of the dominions, and sell their property, with a French chargé d'affaires, and by the Spanish intention to shut their ports against England, ambassadors.--Ist, To shut up the ports of in order thus to avoid an effusion of the Portugal against England. 2d, To detain blood of its subjects, which would probably all Englishmen who resided in Portugal; have proved useless; and to endeavour ond, 3d, To confiscate all English property; comply with the views of the emperor or, in case of refusal, to expose itself to an the French, in case he should not alloy immediate war with France and Spain, be- kimself to be softened down by that justig cause the French chargé d'affaires, and the with which the court of Portugal asseste ambassador of Spain, had orders to depart the rights of its independence, along wit on the 1st Sept. about three weeks after the those which resulted from the treaty of ceu said proposal was made, in case the court of trality concluded in 1804. The count of th Portugal should not comply with all the Thuilleries, unwilling to agree to any con pretensions of the two courts. The good ciliatory measures, and having demanded me faith of the French government is no less only the shutting up of the ports, but als remarkable, with regard to the celerity with the imprisonment of all British subject which, after having made that declaration, the contiscation of their property, and ik and without waiting for the answer of the dereliction of the project to retreat court of Portugal, it (odered all Portuguese | America, bis R. H. the Prince Regent merchant ships to be detained, which were Portugal, who knew on the one side, thi in the ports of France, and by that measure bis Britannic Majesty, his true and old ally actually begau hostilities, without any pre- informed of all the transactions which wer vious declaration of war, and thus carried a going on, would consent to the shutting far greater length all the proceedings which of the ports, in order to save Portugal fros formed its continued topic of reproach | the invasion of the French, and who w against England; which, after such a con- cunvinced, on the other side, that there wa duct, will be justly valued. The court of no longer any Englishman in Portugal, whi Portugal might then well have adopted the was not naturalised in that country, and the known maxim of the Romans, and been all English property had been sold, and ever convinced, that disgraceful conditions fre. its amount exported, adopted the resolutio quently saved those who refuse them, and to shut up the ports against England, as brought destruction upon those by whom even to comply with the rest of the demand they were proposed; but on the one side it and pretensions of France, declaring, how could not believe that the court of the Thuil- ever, at the same time, that, should the leries made, in earnest, proposals which French troops enter Portugal, his royal

committed both its honours and its dignity; highness was firmly resolved to remove ibe *and, on the other side, it hoped to ward off seat of goveroment to Brazil, which formed the stofın, desirous of sparing the blood of the most important and best defended part its people, and placing implicit confidence of his dominions. His R. H. then ordered in the friendship of his Britannic majesty, the whole of his army to move to the coast its old and faithful ally, it endeavoured to and seaports ; supposing that as France had render the pretensions of the French govern essentially obtained all she demanded, she ment more moderate,' by acceding to the had nothing more to ask ; confiding in bat shutting up of the ports, and refusing the two good faith, which ought to be considered as other articles, as contrary to the principles The fundamental principle in every govern of the public law, and to the treaties which ment, which has ceased to be revolutionary; subsisted between the two nations; and his and feeling conscious that having done every royal highness the Prince Regent of Portu. thing in his power to secure the tranquillity gal had no hesitation to declare, that those of his people and avoid an useless sffusion of blood, he bad fulfilled all the duties of a domination of all Europe and of the whcle. victuous prince, adored by his subjects, and world, if the great European powers, roured who, to the Supreme Being alone, has to from the lethargic stupor into which they account for his actions. The French govern- are sunk, do not make common cause ment there observed a line of conduct to. vigorously to oppose an ambition so imwards his R. H. and his dominions, which moderate and excessive.--Since his R. Hi's would be unprecedented in history, were not safe arrival in his dominions, in Brazil, the invasion of Switzerland by France, in the he has learned with borror, not only time of the executive directory, of a similar the usurpation of Portugal, and the piddescription. Gen. Junot, without any pre- lage and plunder, practised in that couuiry, vious declaration, without the consent of but also the shameful proceeding of the Emthe Prince Regent of Portugal, entered the peror of the French, who,' as the true dickingdom with the vanguard of his army, tator of Europe, dares to represent it as a assuring the people of the country through crime of his R. H.'s that he has removed which he marched, that he was going to his seat of gvernment to Brazil ; and in bis succour his R. H. against an invasion of the faithful subjects who followed him, !o have English, and that he entered Portugal as the accompanied a prince, whom all his people general of a friendly and allied power. He revere, still more on account of his virtues, received on his journey convincing proofs of than of the rights of his august royal family, the good faith of the Postuguese government; which he has inherited, and by virtue of for he witnessed the perfect uneasiness which which he reigns over the:n. His R: H. prevailed with regard to France; and that all has witnessed with horror the hardihood the Portuguese troops were near the coast. with which an attempt has been made, in His R. H. the Prince of Portugal, surprised an official paper; to proscribe the rights of in such an extraordinary manner, might his august royal family to the crown of Porhave rallied around him the body of troops, tugal, with which he will never part ; and which were at a small distance from him, he is entitled to demand of the emperor of caused the English fleet to enter the port of the French, from what code of the law of Lisbon, and thus cut to pieces the small and nations he has drawu similar principles, and miserable corps with which gen. Junot received such an authority, claiming to this was advancing, with a degree of temerity subject the most serious consideration of which would have been ridiculous, had not all European powers, who cannot see with gen. Jmut, whose conduct at Venice and indifference what has here been stated, and. Lisbon has but made bini tvo well known, the introduction of a new government in Porrelied on the feelings of a virtuous prince, tugal, without his consent : as well as the who would never expose his people to the raising of an exorbitant contribution, denianmost dreadful of calamities by a sure first ded from a country which opposed no kind success, which only could have served to of resistance to ihe entry of the French chastise the audacity of a man, who, like troops, and which, on this very ground, many others, abused the power with which could not consider itself as being af wac he was entrusted, or wbo acted in pursuance with France. --The most remote posterity, of orders which cannot be justified. --His as well as impartial Europe, will see with royal higlmess the Prince Regent then adopted grief similar transactions, the forerunners of the only measure which could suit his situa, ages of barbarism and misery, such as those tion, according to the principle which he which followed the downfall of the Roman had constantly followed, to save the blood empire, and which cannot be avoided, unof his people, and in order to prevent the less exertions be made to restore the equisriminal plan of the French government poise of Europe, by an unanimous effort, from being carried into execution, which and with a total oblivion of all ideas of rival bad nothing less in view than to secure his ship, which have hitherto been the true royal person and the whole royal family, in causes of the elevation of that monstrous order to divide, at its own will and pleasure, power which threatens to swallow up ahl.the spoils of the crown of Portugal and the After this correct and true statement, made Portuguese dominions. Providence second- by bis R. H. the Prince Regent of Portoed the efforts of a jast prince, and the mag- gal, to Europe and to his subjects, of every nofmous resolution which his royal highness thing which has taken place between the a op od, to retire, with his august" royal Portuguese and French government; and as fi mi y, to Brazil, disconcerted at once ibe the emperor of the French has not only inElurts of the French government, and ex. vaded Portugal, and laid that count', nder posed, in the clearest light, in the face of the most dreadful and almost incre Europe, the criminal and reacherous views tributious, under the cloak of f

PX of a government which aims at the universal but bas also long ago

withdrawn h.

froni his Royal Highness's couri, and even ly determination of the people of Portugal caused Portuguese merchant ships to be io es:ablish the government of their lawful seized, which were in his ports, without prince, and epaucipate their country from avy previous declaration of war, and con. French oppression-send, agreeable in trary to an express article of the treaty of your requests, ships, troops, arms, and am. neutrality, from which he derived the munition, and have dir-cted the standard of greatest advantages; and, lastly, declared his royal highness the Prince Regent of Por. war against him, according to the report of igal to be reared, round which every loşal the minister for foreign affairs ; his Royal Portuguese is liereby invited immediately to Highness, after having resigned his cause rally, and to take up arms in so just and so into the hands of the Almighty, whom he glorious a cause.-To be successful, Portuhas every right to invoke in so just a cause, guese, you must be unanimous; and, join thinks it due to his rank, and to the dignity ed hy your brave neighbours and friends the of his crown, to make the following decia- Spaniards, you must not be intimidated by ration :-His Royal Highness breaks off all nienaces, nor seduced by promises.—Song communication with France, recalls all the months' experience must have convinced you members of his embassy, if any, should yer of the effect of French friendship; it is now remain, and authorises bis subjects to wage

to British faith and assistance, aided by your war, by sea and land, against the subjects of own energy and efforts, that you will, I trust, the emperor of the French.-His R. H de. be indebted to the restoration of your princa clares Dell and void all the treaties which and the independence of your country.the emperor of the French has compelled (Signed) C. Cotton. him to conclude, and in particular those of Badajoz and Madrid, in 1801, and that of ITALY.In pursuance of the circular ade neutramy in 1504 ; because he has violated dress from the gnvernment to all the prelates and never respected them.- His R. H. of Tuscany, ihe archbishop of Florence shall not lay down his arms, unless in con- transınitted to all the clergy within bis diocert with his Britannic Majesty, his old and cese a pastoral Letter, of which the follos. faithful ally, and will never agree to a ing is a passage :-As some of those who cession of Portugal, which forms the most are subject to our authority, forgetful of ancient part of the inheritance and of the the most sacred duties of a Christian, have rights of his angust royal fanily.-When the dared to take the liberty of censuring the emperor of the French shall have satisfied, in government, we admonish you, both in every point, the just claim of his Royal public and private, to hold tbe sorereign in Highness the Prince Regent of t'ortugal, respect and honour, and by your example and shall have relinquished the dictatorial and instructions to encourage the faithful to and imperious tone in which he lords it over

obedience. Remeniber That the holy oppressed Europe, and when he shall have | Apostle Paul calls kings the servants of God; restored to the crown of Portugal all he has and the kings, of whom the Apostle speaki, invaded, in the midst of peace, and with

were no other than heathens and adversaries ont the least provocation, bis royal bigh- to the cause of Christ. The true Christian ness will avail himself of the earliest is the enemy of no man, much less of the opportunity to renew the connexion which Emperor, for be is aware that bis majesty has always subsisted between the two coun

holds his appointment from God, and that tries, and wbich ought to exist between na

he must love and honour him, and offer up tions, which will never be divided but by his prayers for his preservasion. the principles of an inordinate ambition,

COBBETTS which, according to the experience of ages, Parliamentary Debates. have also proved destructive to the welfare

The Tenth Volunie of the above Work, and tranquillity of all nations by which they comprising the period from the Opening were adopted.

of the Session on the 21st of Japuary 10 PORTUGÁL.-- Proclamation by Sir Charles the sth of April, is ready for delivery. The

Colton, Bart. Admiral of the Blue, c. Eleventh Volume, which will close the Commander in Chief, dated Hibernia, of" Debates of the Session, is in considerable the Tagus, July 4, 1809.

forwardness. The Appendix will contain Inhabitants of lortugal.- Deputatiou hav- the Annual Financial Accounts, together ing reached me from all parts of the king with other valuable Documents connected down, soliciting succour, aid, and assistance, with the Proceedings in Parliament during and stating to me the loval, brave, and man- the Session.

Printed by Cox and Baylis, Great Queen Street; published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Covent

Garden, where foriner Numbers inay be had : sold also by J. Budd, Cruwa apd Mitre, Pall-Mall.

V. XIV. No.8.)

LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 20, 1908.

[Price 10n.

" Damns with faint praise...... POPE. 257)

(258 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. be of great use to be applied hereafter in the UKS OF YORK_Of all the subjects, way of precedent. In my last sheet, I t'cd, for some time past, bave engaged quoted an article of the Morning Chronicle, idteniion of the public, no one has ex- and made some remarks thereon. I shall 1.64ga interest so general and, to all ap- now quote another, which is in the form of , time, so deep, as the talked-of appoint- a letter to the editor, affecting to defend the su! of the Duke of York to take com- Duke of York and to praise him ; but, it is In und of the army destined to act in Spain but too evidently such praise, and made use a c Portugal. Not to the inns, the coffee- of for such a purpose, as are described in the houses, the marts, the malls, and the set- words of my moito. The letter is long and lied gossiping shops has the conversation very dull, bu: I wish to have it upon record, upon this subject been confined. It has en- that, if the subject should ever be started tered into all private circles; it has been a again, we may refer to the sort of statement stauding dish at the dinner and tea-table ; and reasoning made use of at this time.men stop each other in the streets to talk The reader will perceive, that the letter purabout the Duke of York's going to Spain ; ports to be a commentary upon a printed adthe eager Londoner stops, even in his way dress to the Cabinet ministers, which adto the Change, to ask whether it be really dress those ministers are, it seems, censored true, that the Duke of York is going to for not sending the Duke of York to Spain Spain; nay, in the very church-porches of in detiance of what it acknowledges to be the country, among the smock-frocked po- the public opinion, but which it calls “ poo Eticians, whose couversations, as to public pular prejudice."" I bare not seen matters, seldom welit beyond the assessed " the printed Address to the Cabinet Mitaxes, you see half a score faces thrust al- “ nisters mentioned in your paper of this most to the point of contact, in order to day, and I sincerely hope and trust it has krow " for zartin if the Duke of Yorke be not fallen under the view of bis Royal a gooen to be zent to Spain." I have " Highness the Duke of York. It must give often wondered how this last-mentioned de. the gallant mind extreme pain to find, that scription of persons came to hear of the some despicable parasite bas endeavoured Duke of York; knat is to say, how they 10 use liis pane, as a cover for the foullest came to know, that there was such a person " insinuations against departed greatness; ia the world. Not ose out of a thousand of and, though I doubt not his zeal to cnthen knows that there is such a man as Mr. counter danger in the great cause of raCanoing or Mr. Perceval. They all are tional lilerly, yet that ze al cannot but be familiarly acquainted with the name of " controuled by a respectful deference to Lord Nelson. This I can account for; but, " the general wisdom of the nation. I I really cannot account for the perfect know- say the wisdom, for although there may ledge which they appear to have of " the “ be some prejudice in those wbo attribute " Duke of Yark," as they call him. The " to his Royal Higliness the failures of those fact is, however, that, in spite of whatever " expeditions which he has formerly comElorts some persons may have made to keep " manded; yet the wisest and best men the deeds of the Duke hidden fri m the “ know, that the effect of such prejudices world, to put, as it were, bis light under a "s cannot be wholly obliterated from their Beishel, beis, at this monient, not a bit less own minds, stiil less from the minds of famous than Lord Nelson himself, and lias, “ soldiers in general, who are to act in or ihe fault shall not be mine, as fair a subordivation to their commander, and chance of immortality. Such being the whose personal safety is to depend on his case, the discussion relative to the talked-of judgment. It is therefore wise, so 10 By vintment ought not to be slovened over. “ choose our generals if possible, as that We ought, before we quit it, to come to no prejudice, whether in respect to the Fietbing like a conclusion, so that we may « influence of luck, or of talents, or of Carry with us a settled opinion, which may any other ingredient in their characters,

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