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wise, and if these qualifications are admissi- certainly, his evidence, as stated in the new's. ble, the courts of justice are to be looked 10 papers, is likely to make the public inter in matters of taste; they are to decide every such an imputation, The fact, I would al. literary dispute ; and here, as well as else. most lay my lite, was this: belleen a wbere, we shall be unable to open our bookseller and an author ibere necessarily mouths without having a lawyer for our arises, particularly if the latter be a person
of guide and assistant. I will not answer for some consequence, a gre.iter or less degree the correctness of this report of the Chief of that sort of intimacy, which, as the Justice's speech. He might not mean, that fashion of the world goes, is denominated a man was punishable, by law, for unfair friendship. Sir John Carr appears to be a or unjust criticismı ; and, I am in hopes, man not likely to lose any thing for the mere that the decision, upon this occasion, will want of asking for; and, he would easily tiud make ihe stupid authors feel, that they can- the means of committing Sir Richard so far not worry a man of talents to death merely as to bring him into court with sentiments because he was exposed their stupidity. It favourable to his cause. The moment a does not appear, from this report, whether man is lashed, or exposed, he, according to the Sir Richard Phillips came forward volunta- cant of the day, cries out libeller. Libeller rily, or was forced forward, in behalf of is echoed by his friends; and, after hearing bis brother knight; but, to be sure, it was this in half a dozen places, he naturally bequite good to hear him say, that he never gins to turn himself towards the law for read scandalous or anonymous publications, redress, especially if he find himself incapable when he was the sole or part owner of so of defending himselt with his pen. It was many works of the latter description ; when thus that the quack in America acted tohe was part owner of a Review, and the sole
He began the publications. He owner of the “ Anecdotes,” than which issued his destructive prescriptions through there is not, perhaps, a more false and scan- the news papers. I answered his publicadalous book in the English language, that tions; I reduced him to silence, and tinally is to say, if falsehood and scandal do not drove him and his death-doing practice out lose their nature when applied to French men of the city. Unable to defend himself, he and French women, and when they obtain had recourse to the lawyers; and, with the circulation because they are calculated to assistance of such judges and jurors as are to gratify pre-conceived malice and hatred. be found in great abundance in his country, The work of Messrs. Hood and Sharpe not gave me a dose almost as injurious as he only injured Sir John Carr, but Sir Richard would have sent me from his own shop. Paillips also; for, observe, he is the proprie- Of all the acts, of wbich a man pun be tor of Sir John's first work, the very work guilty, nove is so mean, none is so base, that was criticised, and the sale of which none is so truly detestable, as that of seekmust, of course, be greatly injured, if not ing, through the law, vengeance for a litetotally stopped, by a criticism, which had rary defeal. If this were to be tolerated; if siifled the second work in its shell. So exposing a man's abilities to ridicule were to ibat Sir Richard Phillips was, in fact, a per- be deemed libelling, and to be punished as $op deeply interested ; and, though this such, who, unless he had a long purse, and circumstance would not alter the fact which a body of iron, would dare to attempt the he had to state, it would naturally give a task of criticising the works of a rich min? tinge to any sentiment that he had to express. Every wealthy fool might publish his iras lan, however, utterly astonished, that any in perfect security, and ibat, too, withword should have dropped from him calcu- out being under the necessity of treating lated to throw odium upon those who endea- and bribing the Reviewers. No man would your to inake a free use of the press. What dare expose his folly or imbecility; for, at would it bave been to him, if those bundles of any rate, the tormentors of the law would trasb, labelled “The Stranger in Ireland," had be set upon the critic, who, as his least pu. been sent, as they now, in all probability, will nishment, would be half ruined in lois de. be, to the trunk-makers, or the paste-board fence. There would be nothing, however mil? Was this vile rubbish worth the risk infamous as well as foolish, that a poor of His being exposed to the imputation of writer would dare to commeni ipon with wishing to see a brother bookseller suffer for freedom. He must write in rammels so haviag published a book operating to his in- tight as to render his efforts of live or no jury? I do not impute this wish to him. effect. There would, in short, be a general On the contrary, I sincerely believe him, who license for tolly and wickedness, when backis a very kind and good as well as a very clever ed by wealth; and suill there would be man, to have entertained no such wish; but, scoundrels so impudent, as to call upon us
to deny ourselves almost the necessaries of public servants. It is of comparatively trif· lite, and to expose life itself, for the purpose | ing consequence what men publish in books. of preserving, what they would still call the Five hundred people, perhaps, never saw, liberty of the press. The evil woula go yet or beard of, Sir John Carr's trash ; and, if further; for the rich bookseller would be- it could have been read by the whole nation, come a persecutor as well as the wealihy it is not likely that it would have done either fool who writes. His purse would be a harm or good. But, in the ability and shield for a dozen or two of dull doctors honesty of men in office, every person in the
liom he keeps in his pay, and by the means country is deeply interested, and therefore of whose imposture-liks performances he ought to be regularly and minutely informed increases his fortune. Well might Lord upon the subject. Upon matters of taste Ellenborough say, that “ he knew of no- in books, of what consequence is it whether " thing more threatening to the liberty of the people are well-informedør ill-informied? " the press than this species of action.". But, upon matters closely connected with But, how stands the case with regard to the prosperity and honour of the country, publications touching the words, or conduct, it is of great importance that they should of persons in general, and particularly mem- Jack no information that can possibly be bers of the government? Is it not danger- communicated to them. Well, tben, how ous to the liberty of the press to lay it down is this information to be given ? How, if as a maxim, that their abilities are not to be not through an unshackled press, a press reridiculed; that you are to say nothing at all strained only from uttering falsehood, acwhich hurts their feelings, without exposing cording to the old language and practice of! yourself to punishment Reports of trials
the law ? Suppose I had been in battle are, in general, not very correct; the whole with a general, and had seen bim run from of the places where trials are held are so the enemy, bearing him in swiftness as i crowded with lawyers, to whon, indeed, shamefully as a March bare beats a lurcher ; they are almost exclusively appropriated, suppose I had seen this, or received good that it is extremely difficult for any reporter information of it, would it not be very neto obtain the accommodation necessary for cessary to make the fact known, in order to the making of notes. I do not, therefore,
prevent such a winged-heeled fellow from give the words of my motto as words actual- again exposing the lives of the army and ly uttered by Lord Ellenborough, but merely bringing disgrace upon the nation? Supas words published in the several news pa- pose I had an opportunity of knowing se pers, as having been uttered by him, upon veral men, pretending to office and power, the occasion alluded to. As such, they must to be letally unqualified for any business and have produced a great deal of effect; and, totally unworthy of any trust; would it out tiere is no doubt in my mind, that the doc- be very useful to comniunicate my know. trine they contain bas encouraged Sir Joho ledge to the public ? Or, suppose me to Carr, knight, to bring the action, the fate of have merely an opinion relating to public which is above recorded. Let us hope however, men, how do we arrive at the best ehance of ibat this dangerous doctrine is now exploded forming correct notions as to things unas completely as if the Whigs bad kept their known, except it be by expressing our words after they got their places, and made it opinions to another?
-Nor, cao a sol ject of discussion in parliament; for, I I see what mischief could arise from belicie, it will be very difficult to produce any carrying the same liberty into the dissolid reason, why a man should havethe liber- cussions relative to the private aftairs of men. 1y to hurt the feelings of an author any more Suppose, for instance, I say, that Mr. than to hurt the feelings of a minister of such an one is a contented cuckold ; that he state ; why lie should be allowed to ridicule has received proof quite sufficient that his the abilities of the former any more than wise has had a child by another man;
bot the abilities of the latter; why it should be that, in consideration of a good sum ef an oitence worthy of penal visitation in the money, paid him by the principal cuckolder, fornier case any more than in the latter case. he holds his tongue, and, as the old saying I cannot discover any grounds for a distinc- is, puts his horns in his pocket. This is, 110:7 ; and, thereñor?, I conclude, that if indeed, to suppose a strong case; but, such ve slionld, by any accident, see a fool in a case may possibly exist; and, if it does, ofice, we are at liberty to expose his folly, should not such a man be pointed out? and lo convince the nation, that the manage- Ought not the mean scoundrel to be held up nient of their aftairs is in bad bands. 111
to the ridicule and scorn of the world ? What: deed, the real use of the liberty of the press other way is there of correcring such dis}s iu cause the exposure of weak and wicked graceful and perpicious vices ? Sappose od
to know a man upon the point of becoming tion we possess? In order to make out a a bankrupt, why should I not state the fact? defence of the contrary doctrine, What barın can arise from it? And if, have supposed, that, if every one were at upon any occasion, I speak what is fulse, liberty to publish all the truth that came skre is the law to punish me, and to make to his knowledge, the prints would be filled compensation to the person whom I have with anecdotes of domestic occurrences, slandered.--- It is said, that you would, by with which the world have nothing to do. allowing a liberty like this, set every neigh- Either such occurrences are interesting to bourhood together by the ears. Why should the world, or they are not ; if the former, it be so ? I can discover no reason for it. It they ought to be known, if the latter, the is to deny the excelicnce of truth, to sup. world would uot attend to them, and the pose that an unrestrained expression of the promulgation of them would soon meet its truth could be productive of injury. It is just punishment in the contempt which fitting that all men and women and actions would fall upon the promulgator. To preshould be generally known for what they vent the publication of truth is to confound, are; and, it appears to me, that to express the wise with the foolish, the honest man a fear at the promulgation of truth, is to with the rogue, the brave man with the foster falshood, and to offer a screen for all coward, the virtuous wirb the vicious. sorts of vices. There are many vices and Where there is no press, or no shew of crimes, ton, that he law will not reach, yet freedom allowed in using it, the people es. they ought to be repressed, and how are they pect to hear no truth through that channel ; 10 be repressed unless men dare communi. but, where the liberty of the press is a cate freely their knowledge to one another? subject of boasting, they may well expeet I publish that such an one is a liar. If what to hear the whole truth, and, if they hear 1 assert be false, my falshood can be made it not, they are deceived with a shadow. appear, and I am punished in one way or Nothing can be more worthy of another ; but, if what I assert be true, is it punishment than the publication of wilfuil not useful, that it should be known? falschood. I would, with all my heart, Upon this principle the law of England for- make this crime transportation, where it to-rly proceeded. The indictment of a per- seriously affected the reputation of any man, son for a libel always stated, that he had in whatever rank of life. To the feelings uttered what was false; faishood was essen. | of a person, fulsely accused, ample vental as a ground work of the charge. As we geance is due; but, if I speak no inore of live grown in refinement our ears have a man than I can prove to be true, am I to become more delicate, and it is now sutñcient De branded as a ruffian who has no regard that the words are scandalous and malicious, for the feelings of my neighbour? Shall a qualities which it is not easy to define, and fool be looked upon as baring the feelings which are, indeed, mere matter of opinion, of a wise man, a peculator the feelings of a What one man thinks scandalous and mali- man of integrity, a reprobate the feelings of cious another man does not think so; a saint ? Aye, say some persons, you think, bur, all the world are agreed with respect then, that it is only the innocent whose feelto falshood and truth. These admit of ings are to be considered, but, you cannot pronf ; the others do not. Against a charge wound the feelings of the innocent; it is of falshood evidence can be brought; brit
, only the guilty that feel. Hence Lord as to scandal and malice they must be left Mansfield's maxim, I suppose : “ the greatto surmise, to the opinions of a jury ; and er the truth the greater the libel,” accordbias a salvo is provided for the cousciences ing to which maxim it is a greater libel to of men who would be afraid of point blank call a highwayman a highwayman, than to perjury. As the law now stands, you may give the same appellation to a person perfectly not speak the truth, for fear of doing mis- free of every crime. This is the unavoidable chief. There is something so repugnant to consequence of making it a crime to publish iason in this, that I cannot be bronght to truth ; and, in my opinion, of all the means consider it as wise. We all pretend, that of debasing and corrupting a people, none is to obtain truth is our great object.
We all more efficacious or more speedy, ihan that of pretend to detest disguise, hypocrisy, and giving them a press, through which truth has all the various sorts of falshood.
not a free circulation, have servants to hire, tradesmen to employ, SPANISH REVOLUTION.-----The intelliacquaintances to form, our first step is to gence from Spain seems to indicate, that, obtain a true account of them; and why, let the result be what it may, there will be then, should the law forbid us to commu- an arduous contest. This I most earnestly kicate to the public at large all the informua- pray for ; because, without such a contest,
no good can arise. In his answer to the Such persons may make up their minds to Londoners, the king says, he has no other a disappointment; for, never will Buonaparté object than that of supporting the “ ancient be beaten by men that can bear the idea of
government" of Spain. Precisely what again putting on the yoke of despotism. One his majesty may mean by the word ancient, or the other the Spaniards must be, either I cannot positively say ; but, I hope, he the subjects of Joseph Napoleon, or their does not inean, that goverument who sent own masters, subject only to a government the Spanish army to the North of Europe ;
of their own choosing. who gave up the sword of Francis I ; who CORN AGAINST SUGAR, What
the introduced a French army into Spain; who “ Barley growers" now? Barley has not fal. made Murat Lieutenant of the kingdom ; | len, notwithstarding all the predictions of and who sold the Spaniards to Buonaparte for Mr. Arthur Young. Nay, it has continued a snug maintenance in France. It is the to rise, while cats have risen one third government, I should hope, that existed in price. I wonder what will be said when the Cortes, or representatives of the now? What shume will be resorted people, used to be fairly assembled, and to ? I should like to hear what can when the nation was not governed by a set be said by those who met to perilica of intriguing tyrants. This being the case I
This being the case I against the sugar-bill. There is, I think, cordially agree with his majesty, and hope an appearance of a short crop of barley and that his efforts will be crowned with success. oats. The introduction of sugar will have If the people of Spain are to have a despot, added about 300,000 quarters to the crop, I care pot one straw who he is. I feel no in- which, though hardly worth mentioning in terest in the events going on. I care not
comparison with the amount of the produce which side beits, or is beaten.
of the country, is something, and the bill dees are going back, it seems, the lacqueys will, therefore, have done some little good. of Joseph Napoleon. This is what they -The clamour, which was raised, at the ought to be. Were I in his place, I would tine that ibis bill was before the House of make them black the shoes of
my Commons, should not soon be forgotten. French servants. Nobility indeed! Here The agricultural people should be frequently is a precions speciinen of the effects of
reminded of it. They brought forth all their high blood! What an example is here ! interest and their very best ialents upon the What a lesson for the nations of Europe! occasion. Let it, therefore, remain as a standa Talk of upstart kings and nobles ; are there ard whereby to judge of the degree of reliance 'any of them, any of the" ale-house-keeper's that is to be placed upon them. I repent, suns", who have, in any one case, actod that they are embodied into a sect. All sec thus ? What must that government have taries ale bigots. There is no liberality of been, which was composed of wretched discussion, or of thought, amongst then; vermin like these? Is there any man who their tenets are always to be discrusted, and will openly say, that he wishes to see such a their assertions, as to facts, are not always to government restored ? Loyal ! aye, these be relied on. That this widely spread and base scoundrels were, I warrant it, the very powerful sect should have been beaten by pink of loyalty, and have, amongst them, seni the indolent West Indians is truly astonishing, many a man to the gallows upon the sus- and cannot be attributed to any thing but picion of being disioyal. I warrant it, they the badness of their canse. have been famous persecutors in this way. Botley, 25th July, 1808. Their example, will, however, be useful, long after Joseph Buonaparte, if be should
OFFICIAL PAPERS. succeed, will have sent them all to clean the London.--On the 201h July, 1808, the kennels of Madrid; for, when he is once mayor, aldermen, recorder, sheriil's, and safely seated upon the throne, he will have common council of the city of London, too much sense to keep such base wreiches waited upon his majesty, at the queen's p. near his person. Grandecs! They have been lace (being introduced by lord Rivers, ibe grandees quite long enough. The turn of lord in waiting), with the following address, sonebody else is come. The soldier is abroad, which was read by sir John Silvester, ibu as I told Sir Baalam long enough ago ; and, recorder, as follows:--To the king's inost ere he puts up the sword, he will have his excellent majesty. share of the good things of this world.- and loyal address of the lord mayor, alderThere are, I clearly perceive, some persons, men, and commons of the city of London, who wish to see the Spaniards beat Buona. in common council assembled.-Most g12parte, but wish not to see any change of the cious sovereign, we, your niajesty's loyal royal family or the government, in Spain. subjects, the lord mayor, aldermen, and commons of the city of London, in common in ail their wishes; and we humbly beg council assembled, with hearts full of duti- leave to express our fervent hope, that the ful affection to your royal person, and inse- glorions struggle in which the Spanish nation parably attached to the honour and prosperi- | is engaged, aided by the energies, resources, ty of your government, humbly desire to and magnanimity of the British empire, approach your throne, and represent to your may succeed, not only in asserting the indemajesty the sentiments of a free and faithful pendence of the Spanish monarchy, but in people. While we contemplate with horror ultimately effecting under the protection of and indignation, the atrocious perfidy and divine providence, the emancipation of Euwanton violence employed by the ruler of rope, and the re-establishment of the blessFrance, to reduce under his yoke the Spanish ings of peace. monarchy and the Spanish people, we can- To which address his majesty was pleased not refrain from expressing our joy and exul. to return the following most gracious answer: tation at the pure and animating spirit of
-I thank you for your very loyal and dutitriotism, displayed by that high-minded and ful address. I accept, with pleasure, your gallant nation, in defence of their dearest congratulations on the prospect opened to rights and privileges. They have appealed the world, by the brave and loyal exertions to the generous feelings of your majesty for of the Spanish ration, against the tyranny protection and support, and they have not and usurpation of France, and on the reappealed in vain. You, sire, have felt, as establishment of peace between Great Brithe sovereign of a free people, who, by ex- tain and Spain.-- In aiding the efforts of the tending his powerful aid to a nation, strug- Spanish nation, I have been actuated by no gling for liberty and independence, bolds other motive than that of affording the most forth to the world a bappy and practical illus- effectual and disinterested assistance to a peotration of the blessings which his own sub- ple, struggling for the maintenance of their jects enjoy.-The solemn declaration by ANCIENT government and national indewhich your majesty has been pleased to re- pendence.--I have no doubt I shall continue cognize the Spanish nation as a natural friend to receive from you and from all classes of and ally, against the common enemy of all my people, the same zealous and affectionestablished governments; the frarik, disin- ate support which I have experienced on so terested, and inspiriting pledge which you inany, and on such important occasions. have given, that you have no other object They were all received very graciously, than that of preserving unimpaired the in- and had the honour to... .. kiss his tegrity and independence of the Spanisb majesty's hand! monarchy; the wisdom, liberality, and promptilude of the measures consequently AMERICA.--Letter from Mr. Jefferson to the adopted by your majesty's government, bave Delegates of the Democratic Republicans excited in our breasts the most lively and of the City of Philadelphia, in general grateful sensations. We have to entreat Committee assembled. 251h May, 1808. your majesty's acceptance of our most cor- The epoch, fellow-citizens, into which dial thanks for the noble and liberal system our lot has fallen, has indeed been fruitful of of policy by which your councils have been, the everts, wbich require vigilance and emand contione to be actuated towards Spain; barrass deliberation. That, during such a and we beg leave to assure you, that, in con- period of difficulty, and amidst the perils tributing to the success of your royal inter- surrounding iis, the public measures which position in a cause, at once so great and glo. have been pursued should meet your appro. rious, and so peculiarly congenial to the bation, is a source of great satisfaction.-It spirit and feelings of your people, no exer- was not expected, in this age, that nations, tion shall be withheld, no sacritice shall be so honourably distinguished by their advances spared on our part; to prevent twelve mil- in science and civilization, would suddenly lions of fellow-freemen from being accursed cast away the esteem they had merited from with the most galling and profligate despo- the world, and revolting from the empire of tism recorded in the history of the world - morality, assume a character in history, In the measures which your majesty may which ail the tears of their posterity will think proper to adopt for accomplishing this never wash from its pages.--But, during this great end, you may, sire, rely with the delirium of the warring powers, the ocean firmest confidence upon the affectionate, having become a field of lawless violence, a zealous, and enthusiastic support of your suspension of our navigation, for a time, loyal citizens of London. We feel ourselves was equally necessary to avoid contest, or identified with the patriots of Spain ; we enter it with advantage. This measure will sympatbise in all their wants; we participate indeed produce some temporary inconve.