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provincials. Each individual or member acknowledged and elected. Regulate all your shall present himself every atternoon with movements and operations, both civil and his respective corps, to acquire the necessa- military, by that leading principle, and true ry instruction, destining for that purpose basis of the welfare of the people. Avauns is'o or three hours; understanding, besides, then, from this day, whatever has the apo that they are to clothe and maintain them. pearance of disorder and popular commotion, selves at their own expence : and further, The peaceful husbundman on his farm, the that on Monday next, the 14th instant, the priest before the altar, the magistrate in the inlistment is to be concluded which has been sanctuary of the law, the soldier in trenches communicated to the coinmissaries of the dif- or in camp, all perform their functions ferent districts, to whom they are to present under the protection of justice, with perfect themselves, and who will take a proper note tranquillity and freedom. Let the legisla. of their names, address, occopation, &c. tors issue their command and regulations for haping that every one will hasten so imitate the good of the country, sure of your obethe distinguished example set by the chiefs dience and respect, and let those who shall and individuals of all the public and private dare to violate or destroy it, be considered onces, offering themselves on so important convicted enemies of the country, and a service.- And that this may be known to be punished as such. This is decreed and all, it is published by order of the Junta.- intimated to you by the general council.D JUAN DE Dios De LADABARN, 1st Sec. IGNACIO FLOREZ. D. JUAN DE LA Pena Y SANTANDER, 2d Address of the Government to the People of Sec.
Cadiz, 14th June, 1808. Proclamation of the General Assembly of The French squadron has surrendered at Asturias.- Oveido, 12th June, 1808. discretion, relying on the humanity and ge
Beloved Countrymen - The first duty of nerosity of the inhabitants of Cadiz, as has a citizen is obedience to the laws and law- already been made known. The measures fal authorities. Man, placed in social re- which have been pursued, have prevented lations, is obliged to relinquish a small part our squadron from sustaining the least daof his independence in order to secure the mage, ner have the forces employed to rerest, and the enjoyment of all the advantages duce the French squadron sustained any conof civilized nations. This subjection, dic- siderable loss, and the effusion of blood bas tated by reason, establishes confidence, been less than in the combat of two small franquillity, and order. Without these va- armed vessels; the loss in killed does not luable blessings the public force is precarious exceed four men. The French ships, their and feeble, and frequently used to oppress arms, and warlike stores, remain at one the very people whom it shall protect These disposal, and the prisoners taken will be exo principles are evident, and equally apply to changed for our troops. Nothing of that the constitution and situation of all political kind could have been attained by red hot budies. This being the case, how power- balls, or similar means. Had no measures fal vught to be their influence in the critical of prevention been taken, which require situation in which we are placed. We time, our loss would have been much greahave to cumbat a formidable enemy ; how ter. I therefore trust I have acquitted shall we be able to conquer him without myself in a manner worthy of the inhaunion? How can union exist without order, bitants of this town, who have given me so and order without subordination, and a pro- many repeated proofs of their confidence found veneration and respect for the supreme and respect, that I shall at all times enterpower? With that power you have invest- tain the highest sense of the approbation od the general council of the principality. | with which they have honoured my conIts members, representing the body of the duct. But now I demand, exact, and ordain, people, bave a right to give you laws, which that all disturbances shall cease; that every you must obey. Whatever has a tendency thing shall return to order ; that all persons, to violate those principles and institutions, according to their different ranks and stations, destroys the constitution, and consequently the shall submit to the constituted authorities, welfare of the country and the people. Bear, who all depend from the supreme courcil therefore, in mind, beloved citizens, that of government, at all times solicitous to popular commotion, confusion, and disorder, promote the public welfare and to procure whatever may be the pretext on which they the best alliances and means to secure a sucare fomented, are contrary to the laws, and cessful issue of our undertaking : let the neither cau nor ought to be tolerated by the laws reign and all arbitrary proceedings be enpreme power. Confide, therefore, in avoided. The most enlightened and civithe depositories of sovereignty, whom you lized people upon earth disgraces itself by demanding the death of any individual. The and kill; that excessive efforts bring on infield of batte, where force is repelled by direct debiuty, which is worse than direct force, authorises alone the effusion of blood, weakness, because the very principle of which is otherwise illegal. The sovereign strength is emaciated. Hence it is, that alhimself is not master of the life of an of- though the popular ferment which has perfender, unless lie has forfeited the same by vaded all the provinces has been of considerthe laws of his country. These laws prohibit | able use, yet if not checked, it will produce in all countries, even among the most a state of putrefaction, or, in other words, barbarous rations, sedition and disturbances prove extremely destructive. It is necessaof every description; we are bound to obey ry to return to order, and to have confidence and respect them. This is the only means in the magistrates, who from their knowto secure a successful issue of the contest in ledge, studies, and experience, are able to which we are engaged, and not to offend deliberate, combine, and determine as cireither against the God of Hosts, or the so- cumps!ances shall direct. Without the most vereign, whose sacred rights we have sworn intimate kuowledge, the wisest are liable to to defend. In order to avoid an unnecessary err, and how can a mob possibly steer clear, multiplication of publications, I now ad
of errors, which is mostly guided by the dress the French, who reside in this city. cries of women and boys ?--But not restrictThe supreme council has used towards you the ing myself to this city, I really believe, that utmost lenity and respect; after having taken all these observations are perfectly useless, the oath of fidelity to the Spanish nation, you because the inhabitants of this city are more are permitted to remain in this country, and enlightened that any other, on account of your property is respected.--Grateful for their trade and intercourse with other nathis vale ble blessing, you should not be tions. There are but few idcots in this city, vipers, which destroy the bosom that gave who are merely guided, as it were, by inthem shelter. On the contrary you are bound stinct ; and nach smaller is the number of to she he utmost loyalty and respect for those, who, from their vicious habits, can a govern...... which treats you in so gene only exist in confusion and disorder. These rous a manner; by such conduct you will few have been joined by others of ihe neighnot only avoid the odiuto of the good inha- bouring districts, who neither 'enlist for the bitants of this town, but also obtain their bonourable and glorious service in which we love. Should you act otherwise dread are engaged, nor apply themselves to reap their justice, they will punish with the ut- the plentiful crops with which providence most rigour, and without the least mercy has been pleased to bless us. These are the even meetings which you may hold among men who have not looked for any other emyou yourselves and disloyalexpressions which ployment than that of disturbing the peace you may make use of in opposition to our and tranquillity of this place, and of precause. Should any one of you be so far devoid venting the rest of the inhabitants, nay, of reason as not to respect it on account of its the magistrates, frem performing their duty. equity and justice, he will fall a victim of They are well known ; unless they amend his wickedness or pride.-MORLA. their conduct, and all foreigners withdraw Address of Gen. Morla to the People of Ca- to their different habitations, they will cerdiz, 15th June, 1808.
tainly be punished. Well-dispose I persons The commotion more or less violent, will be obliged to take up arms; they who which has taken place in the whole peninsu- are not able to bear arms will be employed Ha of Spain, has been of eminent service to for other purposes; and boys neglected by rouse us froni the state of lethargy in wbich their parents, and women who raise the hue we in ted, and to make us acquainted and cry, shall be punished. The troops, with ur rights, our glory, and the inviola- the whole town, the sword of justice, and, Lle dnty which we owe to our holy religion above all, God himself, who avenges the and our monarch. We wanted some elec- wrongs of those who misuse his mercies, tric stroke 10 rouse us from our paralytic auiborise and support me. I make this state of inactivity; we stood in need of a known, that nc person may plead ignorance, hurricane, to clear the atmosphere of the however disposed, I shall always follow the insalubrious vapours with which it was load- dictates of humanity and mercy. It will ed. Fortunately the only antidote which never be my wish to punish, but I shall at could save us has proved efficacious. It is, all times be happy to correct. however, necessary to know, that if the use Proclamation of the Partizans of the French, of heroic remedies be continued, after the St. Andero, 25th June, 1809. good effect which was expected from them Inbabitants of St. Andero-An insurhas been obtained, they destroy, annihilate, rection organized in this city has exposed your lives and property to the utmost danger. king should not have nominated that one of The insurgenis routed, conquered, and dis. i bis daughters who has male issue, then to persed, leave you at the mercy of the French him whom he shall appoiot by bis will, either army. The bishop of this city has taken among his relations, or among those whom advantage of all the influence which he pos- he sball deem most worthy to rule over sessed from his dignity and exalted situation, Spain. This nomination shall be delivered to incite the mob to sedition, and the latter to the Cortes for their acceptance.-4. The compelled peacetil persons, whose only wish crown of Spain shall never be fixed upon was tranquillity, to narch at their head; these the same head with any o:ber crown.-5. persons have quitted their homes, and dare In all the edicts and laws, the title of the not return, lest they should be persecuted as king of Spain shall be --D. N.-by the rebels. The general of division, command- grace of God, and the constitution of the ing in St. Andero, considering that the vio. state, king of Spain and the Indies.-6. lence of an ignorant and barbarous mob has | The king on his accession to the throne, or been the only cause of ihe step they have on his aitaining his majority, shall take an uken, invites them to return to their homes, path to the Spanish people on the gospel, to appear with their arms, and promise tide- in the presence of the cortes, the senate, lity and obedience to his majesty, king Jo- the council of state, the council of Castile, seph Napoleon, their sovereign, in which the archbishops and bishops. 7. The form case they shall enjoy perfect security and re- of the king's vath is :----"
“I swear, on the main unmolested. Within the term of four holy evangelists, to reverence and cause to days, reckoned from the date hereof, the be reverenced our holy religion ; to maintain seals shall be put on the goods and effects of the inviolability of the Spanish territory; such persons as shall remain absent, and to reverence and cause to be reverenced, their property shall be contiscated for the be- the liberty of the person, and to govern neht of the state.-MERLE,--General of di, alone for the welfare, happiness, and glory vision, commanding the French troops. of the Spanish nation." Bonifacio RODRIGUEZ DE LA GUFRRA, TITLE TU.OF THE GOVERNMENT. PEDRO FERNANDEZ NicTo, Sec
8. The ti:ority of the king shall last till Sketch of Buonaparle's New Constitution for he has attained his 13th year. During his Spain.
minority there shall be a regerit of the king
dom.-9. The regent must be at least 25 Art. 1.
The Catholic-Apostolic and years old.-10. The regent shall be nomiRomish religion is the predominant and sole nated by the preceding king, among the religion of Spain and its dominions; none infantos who have attained the age mentioned other shall be tolerated,
in the preceding article. - 11. In default of
nomination by the preceding king, the re2. Prince Joseph Napoleon, king of gency belongs to the prince the farthest reNaples and Sicily, is king of Spain and the moved from the throne, according to the Indies.—3 The crown of Spain and the Indies law of succession, and who lias attained the shall be hereditary in the male issue kwfully age of 25 years.--- 12. In case the prince begotien of the body of the said prince, ac- furthest removed from the crown shall be in cording to seniority of birth, to the perpetual a state of minority, the regency belongs to exclusion of females.-In default oi such ibe next prince, who shall continue to exa issue male, lawfully begotten of the prince I ercise his functions till the king shall have Joseph Napoleon, the crown, of Spain shall attained his majority.-13. The regent is descend to us and our beirs male, and legal Dot personally answerable for the acts of his sliccessors, either of our body, or by adop- administration.--14. All the acts of the tion.-lo default of such our male descen. regency pass in the name of the minor king, dants and lawful successors, to descend to -15. The yearly revenue of the regent the issue male and lavand successors of shall be one-fourth of the income of the Prince Louis Napoleon, king of Holland crown.-16. In case the preceding king And in default of such male descendants and shall have nominated no regent, and all the lawful successors of prince Louis Napoleon, princes shall be minors, then the govern to the issue male, and lawful successors of ment shall be carried on by ihe ministers prince Jerome Napoleon, king of West- who form the council of government. -17. phalia. -- And in default of these, to the All state affairs shall be deiermined by a first born son, before the death of the last majority of votes in the council of governking, of the eldest daughter of those who ment.--18. The regency bas no right to have male issue, and to his male descendants, the personal custody of the king, during his and lawful successors; and in case the last minority.-19. The care of the king during.
his minority is vested in his mother, and in 2. Of twenty-four individuals, specially default of her, in the prince appointed appointed by the king from among the thereto by the demised sovereign.20. The ministers, captain-generals, ambassadors, board of guardianship, composed of the councillors of' state, and members of the ministers, shall principally be charged with council of Castile.-33. The existing coupsuperintending the education of the young cillors of state are members of ine senate. king; and the same shall be consulted in No new nomination shall take place outil every matter of importance, relative to his , they are reduced telow twenty-four, as reperson or establishment.
gulated by the preceding article.-4. The TITLE IV. - PROPERTY OF THE CROWN. president of the senale is appointed by the
21. The palaces of Madrid, the Escurial, king. He is chosen out of the senate, and St. Ildefonso, Aranjuez, D'El Pardo, and his functions last for one year.. 35. The all the others now forming part of the pro- senate meets by the command of the king, perty of the crown, together with the parks, or on the application of the junta, or one woods, domains, and estates of what kind of its officers for internal affairs.-36. In soever, constitute the property of the crown. the case of an armeit insurrection, or of The revenues accruing from the said property apprehensions respeciing the safety of the shail be paid into the ireasury of the crown; slate, the senate may, on the proposition of and should they fall below the yearly sum the king, suspend the operation of the of a million of hard piastres, an addition of constitutional act in a particular district, hereditary property shall be made, so as to and time to be limited. make good the revenue to the amount stated. [The remaining articles of this title, and --22. The public treasury shall annually pay those of the 8th title relative to the council over to that of the crown, a sun of two of state, contain little that is of general millions ir bard piastres.--23. The king's interest. The king presides in the council, sons, on attaining the age of twelve years which is to consist of not less than 30, nor shall receive the following annual revenues more than 60 members, divided into six in the name of subsistence money, viz. :- sections, viz. those of justice, religion, inthe heir apparent, 200,000 piastres; each ternal affairs, police, finance, war, the infanto, 100,000 piastres; anu cach infanta, marine, and the Indies.} 50,000 piastres.-24. The dowry of the queen is tixed at 400,000 piastres, and shall
57. The cortes or juntas of the nation ar be paid out of the treasury of the crown. composed of 150 members, divided into TITLE V.-OF THE OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL three estates or orders, namely those of the HOUSEHOLD.
clergy, nobility, and people. --58. The 25. The chief and grand officers of the order of the clergy shall consist of 25 arch. royal household are six in number,— grand bishops or bishops.--50. The order of the almoner, grand chamberlain, grand cup- nobility shall consist of 25 nobles, who shall bearer, grand master of the horse, grand have the title of Grandees of the cortes.huntsman, and grand master of the cere- 60. The order of the people shall consist of monies.--26. Thenoblemen of the chamber, 40 deputies from the provinces, 30 from the the steward's chaplains, and equeries, are principal cities, 15 from the merchants, and othicers of the royal household.
15 deputies from the universities, to conTITLE VI.
sist of the most celebrated for their attain. 27. There shall be nine ministerial depart- ments in the arts and sciences.--61. The ments, viz. of police, religion, foreign af. | archbishops or bishops constituting the fairs, internal affairs, domains, war, ma- order of the clergy, shall be raised to the rine, the Indies, and general police.-28. rank of members of the cortes, by a writ A secretary of state, in the character of sealed with the great seal of the state. They minister, shall sign all acts of government. cannot be divested of their functions, but -20. The king may commit several minis- by virtue of the sentence of a competent terial functions to one minister.-30. There
court, pronounced in due form.- 62. The is no oiler precedence among the ministers nobles must possess an annual income of than what results from their priority of no- at least 200,000 hard piastres, and have mination in point of time.-31. The minis performed great services in the civil of ters, each in his own department, are res- military departments, to qualify them for ponsible for the execlition of the laws, and being elevated to the rank of grandees of of his majesty's orders.
the cortes. They shall be raised to the rank
by a writ stamped with the great seal of the 32. The senate is composed, 1. of the state. They cannot be divested of their infants of Spain, being 18 years of age. functions but by the sentence of a competent
TITLE VII.-OF THE SENATE.
TITLE XI -OF
court, pronounced in due form.-63 The de. the new kingdom of Granada, two from puties from the provinces shall be nominated Buenos Ayres, two from the Phillipine by the same, in the proportion of at least i islands, one from the island of Cuba, one to 300,000 inhabitants; for this purpose the from Porto Rico, one from the province of provinces shall be divided into so many elec- Venezuela, one from Chareas, one from fire districts as shall be necessary to furnish Quito, one from Chili, one from Guaumala, the population giving a right to the election one from Guadalaxara, one from the interior of a deputy.- (The articles from 64 to 70 western provinces of New Spain, and one inclusive, contain the forms to be observed from the eastern provinces.--86. The said in electing the deputies of the people, the deputies shall exercise their functions during commercial bodies, and the universities. J- the period of eight years; and if upon the 71. The cortes shall assemble upon the sum- lapse of the same their successors shall not mons of the king. They cannot be adjourn- have yet arrived, they shall retain their funced, prorogued, or dissolved, but by his or. tions until their actual arrival. ders. They shall meet once, at least, in
THE ADMINISTRATION OF three years.--72. The president of tne cortes shall be appointed by the king, but 87. Spain shall be governed by one and shall be chosen out of three candidates to be the same code of civil laws. 88. The adpriminated by the cortes by ballot, and an
ministration of justice, is independent. absolute majority of votes.--73 and 74.
Sg. Justice shall be dispensed in the name Un the opening of such session, the cortes of the king, by judges and courts of justice shall nominate three candidates for the pre- to be appointed by his majesty. All courts sidentship, iwo vice presidents, two secre- claiming particular privileges, and all the taries, and three committees, each 10 con- exclusive jurisdictions of any orders or seignisist of tive members, viz. a committee of ories whatever, are abolished —[The rejustice, of internal altairs, and of finance. maining articles under this head contain –75. The sittings of the cortes shall not be nothing of general interest.} public. Their votes shall be taken by ballot. TITLE X111.-GENERAL REGULATIONS. 7c. Neither the opinions nor votes shall be 107. There shall be a permanent alliance printed or published. Any act of publi
Any act of public by sea and land, offensive and detensive, CHOA, in print or in writing, by the assem
between France and Spain. Thecontingent biy of the cortes, or the individual members to be furnished by each of the respective thereof, shall be regarded as an act of in- powers, in case of a continental or maritime surrection.-77. The alterations to be made war, shall be regulated by a separate treaty. in the civil or criminal code, or in the system -108. Foreigners who have performed, or of finance, shall be laid before the cortes for may hereatter perform, great services to the their decision thereupon, by the orators of state; who may prove useful from their the council of state.--80. Should the cortes talents, inventions, or zeal and activity; conceive themselves to have just grounds of u ho may form great establishments, or pura complaint as to the conduct of any of the chase funded estales paying a tax of fifty ministers, a petition, containing their al- hard piastres, -are admissable to the rights ledged grievances and suggestions shall be of naturalization in Spain. The king concarried by a deputation to the foot of the fers this indulgence through his minister for throne. - The king shall appoint a commis- internal affairs upon consulting his council sion, consisting of six councillors of state, of state -109. The residence of every insud six councillors of Castile, to examine habitant of the Spanish territory is an in. into the said petition.–81. The decrees of violable sanctuary. It can only be entered the king, issued in pursuance of ihe decision in the day time, and for a purpose comof the cortes, shall be introduced with the manded by law, or in execution of an orformala“
upon consulting the cortes." der issued by the public magistracy:-10. TITLE X_OF THE SPANISH COLONIES IN No person domiciliated in the Spanish terri. AMERICA AND ASIA,
tory can be arrested, except in the actual 82. The Spanish colonies in America and commission of a crime, or by virtue of a Asia sball enjoy the same privileges as the lawful warrant in writing.-111 In order to mother country.--83. Each kingdom and the execution of a warrant of arrest, it is province shall always have deputies at ibe necessary 1. that the reason of the arrest seat of government, charged to watch ver shall be formally set forth therein, and that their particular interests, and to serve as it shall state the law enjoining the same. 2. their representatives in the cortes.-81. That it shall be granted by an authority forThese deputies are 20 in number, viz two mally empowered by law to grant it. 3. from New Spain, two from Part!, two from That its contents shall be communicated, and