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the Spanish population completely armed and benefit of their country, explain the grounds trained to defensive wni, should “now on which they claim to be considered as advise the governing powers of his country, better practical politicians. to “commence a negociation with the ene. Self-deceit is not always merely personal ; “ my, on a tooting of equality, for the we are equally subject to this foible when " termination of hosiilities on terms of we put ourselves in the place of our nation.

equalliy and honour ?" Are you aware, When, therefore, we would know what, Sir, how much a man implicates himself in the making of a peace is necessary to wih the instrument of despotism, who, national safety, we ought not only to foresee in calling for peace, lemands not at the san.e the extremity to which misgovernment of tine those accuenpanionu11s, by which alone any kind is leading us, but to contemplate hvis country cais bare freedón?

also the dangers to which, after peace shall pece is out to be guarante: o by ind pen- be m:ide, we shall still be exposet, unless dence in the House of Commons, and by that peace bure the accompaniments necessaarms ini ibe hands of the pee on the tile y to national health and vigour in full perprinciples of our constitution, how is it to fection. As, after what has passed, it is krep Napoleon out or England when he evident tha: Spain, in peace, can have no shil choose to ener it? Or how, if he safety, unless her renovated Cortes shall inshould enter it, will the condition of Eng- sure to her a reförmed government; and haad be serior to that of Spain, under unless her people shall become an armed ive corr!!! and inizm is

governinent, nation, organized for crushing an invader, which su drt_ly, is the last act of its baseneys wviralever his forte, and how sudden soever aint auocity, sold ber to the Corsican ? his coming ; so, in our own case, (who are There quasions, Sir, I put to put as a obli separated from France by a channel, as Wi-a inan professing aregard for! ber- cayly passed as the Pyrenpean mountains) I t-13 one whi) Cerasionally talks of the beseech you, Sir, it you would not pass tor Costitutas once a member of dit be an unreflecting, a' temporizing, or a niere

society of the friends of the People asso- party siatesman, duiy to estimate the value scared to sho poriosed of obtaining a Par- of a proposition for peace, without those

ventary Recorin."--While" the cman- accompaniments, of a reformed parliament cption of Spain, the en:hrovement of and armed safety, by which alone a peace * Ferdinand VII, and the awelioration of can yield the truits of peace.

the governdent of that country, through So wide inde d am I from what appears "the ineins of the legitimate orga!of to be your opinion, that, in my judgement, " their Cortes, or any other of their own

the minister who should negociate a peace choo-ing,” as well as “ the freedom of with Napoleon, and at the same time neg" the Spanish royal family," are items to lect a renovation of our Commons House be among the very objects of your proposed of Parliament and of our Posse Comitatusnegociation for peace, how, in God's name, the shield and the spear of the constitution has it happened, that not a single thought -would richly deserve to lose his kead. I has been bestowed on those things which en beg I may be clearly understood. I protest our acco:int ought to be the accompanimenis against all substilutions whatever, in place of Peace ? To question you : bui, had you of that system of arming wbich you must strenuously insisted on these English objects, know to be prescribed by the constitution of sis there a statesman who coud doubt of our country, agreeably to the voice of nature, " their propriety, of their justice, of their and the principles of human liberty. I " honour? Could a Windham, a Gren- equally object to the dexterity of a Dundas, rille, or a Grey have condemned you? to the dictation of a Pitt, to the artifice of a Could a Castlereagh or a Hawkesbury bave | Yorke, to the fancy of a Windbam, and to reproved you ? If rejected, is there a the project of a Castlereagh, who, each in “ free spirit in the universe that would not his turn, as if the constitution were not

join in applauding your honesty and good enough, or else too good for him, bas " wisdom?"

accordingly, in respect of arming, substiI have now, Sir, for the hundredth time, tuted for that constitution some conceit of explained my views, and I am desirous

By the parliament, as if the mere they should be known. I may be deem- creature of every succeeding minister, these

ed romantic for entertaining ihem. But ephemeral maggots of the day have been suc“I trust that those who may treat me as cessively and regularly preferred to the con"chimerieal or absord"—those especially stitutional system. How many more of these who class themselves among the friends of inventions--all of them without exception liberty and the constitution-will, for the hostile to our liberties--we are yet for our

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punishment doomed to number, no human his subjects, or, rather, his constituents, sagacity can divine.

pretend to cede his sovereignty to another Keep your eye, Sir, upon Spain ; that person, out of his family. He may, perfaithful mirror in which we may see in its haps, resign it in favour of bis son, or lineal true light, the value of that return to our and legal successor, as Charles V. did in faconstitution which has been so much despi- vour of his son Ferdinand, because he bas, sed and so long neglected. To what does in a manner, the virtual consent of bis subSpain, to what can she resort, in the huur jects for so doing, from their allegiance to of her extremity, but to a renovated Cortes an hereditary sovereignty; but to dispone it and an armed population ? If she fall in to a stranger is an inconsistency, an imposthe attempt, it can only be, because she rt- sibility; and, excuse nje Sir, for saying, formed, and arved loo lute. And, if slie that it appears an absurdity to maintain that should fall, we know whose hamness, for a fennre flowing from such a source, conthe final conflict, must be next buckled on. stitutes a good, and enimpeachable right to I remain, dear Sir, your well-wisher, a great kingdom.- Napoleon, therefore, Sir,

J. CARTWRIGHT, is worse than usurper of the Spanish $0.

vereignty, and ought to be expelled by every

mode of annoyance : bạt, you say, [P. $18,- In your last number (Vol. XI!I 990) our ministry may look upon ihe Ice p. 1004), you have laid it down as a maxi?, storation of the monarchy, and the con

a sovereignty ceded is a sovereigviy “ tinnance of the government, of the ranks, rightfully possessed;" and yon challenge " and of the orders in Spain, as the price the “ sticklers for the law of nations, " of our aiding this expulsion ;” and that shew how it is that Buonaparte is not, at were you a Spaniard, rather than receive this moment, the rightful sovereign of Spain. “ their aid upon such conditions, you To me it appears, that if Buonaparté, at ibis “ would, after u-ing all the means in your moment, holds the sovereignty of Spain by GW"? pouer tv keep us out, admit Naany tenure, it is by a tenure which all law's “poleon and his government!!!" Here both individual and national, not only do not either hury or enthusiasm bas deprived you sanction, but positively reprobate. In pri- of the power of discriminating bad from vate property no man can cede his right of worse, and worse from worst. But adoit. inheritance, or possession. This right be. ting ihat the government of Spain has been longs not to him exclusively, but to his fa- as bad as you represent it, still i


that mily. He is a mere life. renter. Fron bis the restoration of it, or of the family at the ancestors his inheritance was acquired, and head of it, is the only object for this coulito his own posterity it must be faithfully try assisting the Spanish patriots. Changes transmitted. --But this is a law, Sir, precise of government are always dangerous, and as it is, which applies pot only to the trans- a change great and violent, such as that of mission of the private property of individuals, Spain, at present, would be, which tries to but also to the transmission of crowns and derange or to anticipate the uniform sesceptres, in as far as sovereigns are but in. quence of events, invariably proves fatal. dividuals, and mere men, subject to the laws What! because an accidental abdication of of nature, and to the dictates of common their sovereign has taken place, either from sense. There is however, besides, some his own weakness or the intrigues of anthing still stronger which always will, and other, are the Spaniards to attempt a change ought to have a very powerful effect upon of government at present, when France is the assignation of sovereignties; and inde- ready to exterminate them from the pale of pendent of which no sovereignty can be Europe? Such an attempt would be fully, held, but by the violent hand of usurpation, which leads to perdition. No: this is not or conquest. I mean, the will and voice of the season for such national reformation. the people. What is a sovereign but the. However fair the fabric, the whole mass delegate of his subjects, to whom, accord will crumble to pieces in a moment, unless ing to the nature of the government, is its foundation be good; and the foundation entrusted the management of the public cannot be laid till the flood has subsided, affairs, and the furtherance of the laws of when the sand of corruption may be safely the nation ? It is from his subjects that every cleared away, and the solid rock, upon ruler derives his authority ; and, without which improvement may be erected, searchtheir approbation and concurrence, his pow- ed for, and laid bare. It ought to be the er and title can no longer exist. Upon this boast and the stimulus of every Spanish Pairrefragable principle, no monarch can, from triot,-if our government is bad, let the his private whim, without the sanction of present occurrence rouse us reasonably to


work for its improvement when the proper 'vinces for the repulsion of a foreign yoke Se'7son arrives; but, baci as it may be, rather " and the redempuon of your liberties, by thida? meanly accepi of the insidious utters of

the destruction of the treacherous foe who Our edemks, we will fight for it to the last deprises of his right your unfortunate drop of our viood, merely because it is our « Prince Ferdinand Bayonne, May 8." owo.---But, Sir, besides this considera. But why did be not “ stav to help," you tion, the only object for our affording as- adu. The tenour of the above proclamaBistance (1) ihe Spanish Patriots ought to be rion shews that he had been carried away the establisbarni of the old royal family on by force. Is there any thing more probathe throne of Spain, because this is the ble? Independent of ine proclamation and only detinire object which they can at pre- of every thing else', we are bound in charity sest tight for. li is impossible that the and in reason to believe so, till informed Suaniards can have forved any distinct idea positively of the concrary. Even yet we of an improved government, supposing this kuow nothing aton: all the diabolicalschenies Here the proper season for carrying it iuto and proceedings by which the deposition of estcution : and, this being the case, all our the King of Spain has been efficient. It is aid would serve ouly to weaken ourselves ; sv unnatural, and so unlike all transactions ani Buonaparié would say as a certain re- of ikat sort, that he must be very credulous bellious Scotch nobleman said of old, when iudeed who believes that it has taken place the Court of Scotland was rent by contend- wishont i resistible compulsion - Is the ing factions, that she is happy to see the Prince of Asturirs, then, to be held a parties hacking and hewing each other, * stinking coward ?" And because you con

as he will be able to take possession of clude on such grounds, that he is so, " the government when they then selves

his subjects not to fight for him ? Are the ' have destroyed each other."- Moreover, representatives of the House of Bourbon, tis contrary to sound policy for us to giie the most ancient, and most iliusuious family

ad to shike off ihe yoke of both orts of in Europe, to be made “ kennel »ucepers?" tyranny.” We have nothing to do whe- Even to think so in the present posture of ther the Spaniards are pillaged, robled, ihings, excuse me, Sir, for saying, argues Bugged, imprisoned, &c. I, tur instance, wbal I inust torbear to vanie.--Fanilies are Idle much occasion to dictate 10, and assist all alike : this generation is good, and the

, in managing the private matters of your next is bad. But when a government is to L*a fimily, for example, to advise you not be entrusted to a monarc', there can be no to win your own garden. What is oppris. questiou whether bis simily be ancient or siga to one, is pleasure to anoilier. One upstart ; for the respected by the Auton may assist anviher against the conne wise and revered by the vulvar, and the *). ene .y ; but the practice of interfering latter is almost constantly disrespected and n the regulation of internal goverumeni, bated by all - This brings to ny recollecefinates al ways in the deniment, or ruii, tion Mr. Hurne's Discourses on the Proeither of the assisting, or of the assisted. testant Succession, and the idea of a perfect The contrary is incompatible with the sellist- Commonwealih, recommending which to leis of man. The ancient Briluns, by call- your attentive perusal, I renais?, Sr, your ng in the Saxons and Normans, tu assist reader and well-wisher,--J 3 SCOTOhem in organizing their legislature, became BRITANNUS.- Edinburgh, 301h June, 1809. he slaves of their assistants, and we, who -P. S. I dislike the tiile you have given to nost iuprudentiġ intertered in the French this subjeci of Spanish Revolution;" and, evolu:ion, have raised up an empire, which therefore, beg leave to suggest' Spanish Panow threatens our very existence,

To trictisan." endeavour to induce the people of Spain to shed their blood for the sake of the

OFFICIAL PAPERS. * Bourbon fainily, would be an act [you Cuba, -Solrudor José de Murou Salazar,

say, p. 1002] of unparalleled insvience.' Marquis of Someruelne, President, Go. Arid can you call the Prince of Asturias a vernut, ana Capluin General, 50.--To Coward after his publishing the following the most loyul, brave and gollunt I.haproclaination - Noble Asturians! I am htunts of the Island of Culu.-Duted * surrounded on every side, and a victim of Havannah, Jan 27, 1808. " the nost cruel peitidy. You once savca The experience and knowledve I have * Spain in worse circumstances. At pre- acquired in nine years that I have beld my sent a prisoner, I do not ask of you


present command, have inspired me with crown ; but entreat of you to forın are- the most pleasing confidence in your loyally gular plan with the neighbouring pro- to the King, inlerited from your ancestors, in your love of your country, and in your the slaves of your plantations, as was wilintrepid gallantry. - This confidence, and nessed in Bahiabonda and in other parts, and my just consideration for citizens so worthy, lately happened in Arcos de Canasi,-Enhave hitherto prevented me from adopting grave tliese deeds on your hearts, and on any other means of defence than thi of those of your children, that they may serre forming plans well combined, thus avoiding to stimulate your animosity and just ven. all expense, muiestations, and burdens that

geance; but yet without ever belying the did not appear to me absolutely necessary, character of Spanish humanity and generue being very unwilling to increase the dis- sity, or forgetting that, as the good faith of tresses you suffer in consequence of the pre- the Spaniards has long been proverbial, so sent war. But as the fury and desperation has the perfidy of the English been known of the common enemy daily give additional and detested from remote ages, and, acpro f of a desire to desolate all nations, cordingly, four hundred years ago, Gutierre without sparing even his allies, the time is Diez de Games, in ihe Chronicle of Coont come when pruden,e dictates to put our- D Pedio Nino, wrote thus : “ as the Enselves in a more re.pectable state of delence, glish are different from, and contrary to, all that your

zeal and enthusiasm in making other nations of Christians, they bear no preparations to repel his stacks, and discuni- love to any nation."--To arms, to arms, at cert bis enterpriz , may remind him of the the call of your King, your country, and discoititure which, la Juiy, 187, your your well being, that you may not fall under bravery made hiin suffer in the ingrrisoned the dominion of a government so odious and city of Baracoa, and wer lim that it is so inhuman. Your sately and security are vain for him to imagine that he can gather in your own hands, and depend solely on laurels in the fields of Cuba, whose inha- your will; for your resourcos, animated bitanis yield neither in valour nor in energy with the spirit of union, and directed by to the heroic detenders of Buerios Ayres wisdom, are not to be overcone by the I therefore exhort you, with all the effusion power of your enemy--Repair then to your of my heart, to bear in mind that you are standards, with the enthusiasm and confi. menaced in the security of your homes, the dence with which you ought to be inspired, safety of your wives, your children, and aged by motives so powerful, and let there be no parents, the sanctity of your religion, and necessity for coercive anthority. -- Imitate the felicity of living under a mild and be. the bravery and intrepidity of the inhabinign govertiment, ever attentive to your tants of the shores of the River of Plate, welfare, and to let these considerations weigh who, suspending iheir agricultural labours to with you in determining how far it may be exercise ihemselves in the use of arms, have necessary to extend your vigilance, and add saved their country, secured themselves from to your sacritices, to avert such calamities, the desolation which threatened them, and ever mindful that the British flag is, cupidity have covered ihemselves with immoitai gloand pale envy of the prosperity of all those ry, to the eternal honour of the Spanish who were not born in that incendiary island, nation ---Recollect, in a word, that your and that your laborious application i agri- progenitors were, at one time, the terror of culture, on a soil fertile in rich produccions, the English; and be assured that the false is an unpardonable offence in the moral valour of mercenary banditti, in the garb cudle of the British government --Remember of disciplined troops, is not to be compared that this enemy, totally disregarding the law's with, and much less can it triumph over, of humanity and the system of warfare the noble sentiments with which I have the adopted by civilised nations, in which the pleasure to see you animated; for this very vicioss cougner by valour and generosity, reason that the armed criminal is cowed at commenced the present war by perpetrating, the unarmed voice of justice.–Tue Marin the midst of peace, an act of perfidy and QUIS OF SOMERUELOS. -Ilavannah, Jan. piracy unprecedented, except in the annals

27, 1808. of England. I aliude to the capture of our four trigates in distress, with several other Popepov. Proclamation of Napoleon 1 vessels, and the murder of the brave Spa- relative to the Possessions of the Popeniards wo atiemp'ed to defend them; as Dated Ancona, 11 May, 1803. the highway robber surprises the unsuspect- Napoleon, by the Grace of God and by ing traveller, to despoil bim of bis property, the Constitution, Emperor of the French, and bereave him of life ; and imitaiing this King of Italy, Protector of the Rhenish Conexample, the satellites of England have com- federacy, considering that the present somitted on your coasts the horrid barbarities vereign of Rome has constantly refused 10 of pillage and burning, carrying off even declare war against the English, and to co

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operate with the kingdoms of staly and

has given constant reason of implaint to Naples for the protection of the Italian pe- France. That poit, appertaining rey terriwinsula ; that the interest of the two king- tory governed by a weak punce, bacillen doms, and the relative situation of Italy and under the influence of England, and was Naples, require that their communication become one of the principal inlets for her should be interrupted by no hostile power; i commerce. In ditterent instances, without that the gift of the lands which compose the wishing to violate the neutrality of the soEcclesiastical States was made by our illus- vereign of Tuscany, it became necessary trious predecessor Charlemagne, for the for divisions of French trip to enter Legbenefit of christendom, but not for the suc- horn, to confiscate the biglish merchan. cour of the enemies of our holy religion ; dize there. These vrolitious of territory, therefore have we, upon consideration of the however necessary, are always disagreeable; demand for passports, made by the Romish and since Leghorn cannot be under the inambassador at our court, on the 8th of filence of France 200 E gland at ihe same March, decreed, and do decree, as follows : sime, it m's become a prt of Fianre. Be. Here follow the different articles of the de. sides, Leghorn and the Tuscan territory procree, uniting the provinces of the l'ipul ter- duces sailors for he extension of our marine ; ritory to the kingdom of Italy, and presento ' through its whule extent ship buiding is caring various local regularions as to their go-, ried wit, and in the same proportio'i must vernment}-lu pursuance of a second de- the means be increised of pro, icing seamen Crue, all cardinals, prenies, and oiber of for manning lern. 'f as of lace a squadron fcers of the Rumish couri, born in me was created at Toulon, as if by a miracle, kingdom of Italy, must retire to the place of and it contrary to the ideas of all those who their birth before the 5th of June, on pain are acquainted with the same vich, ke found of forfeiting their goods.

means in equip Dimero's quaisron, which

Admiral Caribeaune can handia wih so FRANCE'S NavAL PROJECTS. 241h May, much abili:y, and for vinh ho ob:a ped IS8.

so much renown. by the skriful mausres On the 24th May, the Prince Arch- by which he frustrated the plans of the enes, Chancellor, presiding in the sitting of the my---which having supplied with m.", prosenate, appointed the state-councellor, Reg. visions, and warlike stores, Corfu, the key Daalt de St. Jean d'Angely minister of state, ' of the Aduatic, menaced by an expedition, to lay before them the grounds of a sinalus already in its way, thuis rendered fruitless, consultum, for uniting Tuscany with the. and which, on its returning voyage, capFrench empire; and M. Semontille spoke turing many considerable prizes, brated all in the naine of the commission of the senale, storms, and exercised the crews during a w nich unanimously voted for this incorpo- difficult voyage of three months--if all these tation. The following is a summary of the advantages have been gained, they must be assigned grounds:--The whole coast of the parily ascribed to the incorpora ion of GeMediterranean Sea must form a part of the noa, which numbers, many of her sons aFrench territory of the great empire. The mong the good seamen of that squadron.Tegions, the coasi adjoining to the Adriatic, The so!'s of the Aloo are invited to the glory, are united with the kingdom of Italy; allihose his majesty having decreed that Spitzzia which lie along the Mediterrane in, which shall be a military port: the docks, the are adjacent to our territory, must be united works of the arsenal, and the furts, both with the empire of France. From Leghorn on the sea and land side, are already narked to Toulon, to Genoa, to the department of out, and before the end of the present year, Corsica, is not farther than from Leghorn to six ships of two or three decks shall be put Milan. The commerce of the Mediterra- upon the stocks.--It would not be proper Dean, whatever may be the opposition of to establish such considerable works at the the tyrant of the seas, shall be necessarily un- extremities of the empire, if a foreign power der ihe influence of France. -The very same were placed at the very gates of that arsefirst principles in consequence of which Ge- nal. Spezzia shall become a second Toulon nga was inc rporaled with France rather in the Mediterranean ; on the whole coast than with the kingdom of Italy, also require there abound iron, timbir, provisions, and that Leghoru be made a part of that einpire. useful bands; the provisions, the iron, and The kingdom of Naples, which lies both the men surrendered up, most becorre on the Mediterranean and the Adriatic, con- French, France and the continent, which stitutes a distinct kingdom, subject, how- are desirous of restoring the bilance of power ever, to the same federative system, and to on the ocean, have the self same interest in the same state policy.--The port of Leghorn the prosperity of the new maritime departe

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