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having been the means of depressing instead | additional machineries erected, and in proof supporting it. Say to the merchants, you portion as artificers can be found or formed, will take only specie, or bank of England their effeci, already.more than doublod, may. paper, and you will convince them of your be increased so as to keep pace with the power.--Say to those who form the combi. yearly increase of the militia. The annual nation, you never more will have the smallest sums appropriated by the latter act, have transactions with them, and they will soon been directed to the encouragement of private repent their conduct, and be assured no others factories of arms; and contracts have been will hereafter presume to inake a similar entered into with individual undertakers, to attempt in any part of the kingdom. Genike nearly the amount of the first year's appromen, there are other and still more imporiant priation. The suspension of our foreign facts that must stimulate you to persevere in commerce, produced by the injustice of the your judicious and manly resistance, and al- belligerent powers, and the consequent losses though perhaps those facts are but little and sacrifices of our citizens, are subjects of known, yet as they ought to be developed, just concern. The situation into which we probably I may hereafter relate them, and have thus been forced, has impelled us to : in the meanwhile I thus publicly call on apply a portion of our industry and capital any one to refute if he can what I have al. to internal manufactures and improvements. ready told you.--With every mark of re- The extent of this conversion is daily in. spect, I remain your well wisher,- THOMAS creasing, and little doubt remains that the Roope.-Lakenham Cottage, Norwich, Dec. establishments formed and forming, will, 28, 1808.

under the auspices of cheaper materials and

subsistence, the freedom of labour from taxOFFICIAL PAPERS.

ation with us, and of protecting duties and proAMERICA.- Message of the President of the hibitions, become permanent. The commerce

United States to the Senate and House of with the Indians too, within our own bound. Representatives. November 8, 1808.- aries, is likely to receive abundant aliment (Continuo I from p. 993.)

from the same internal source, and will By the aid of these, and of the armed secure to them peace and the progress of civili. vessels called into serv ce in other quar. zation undisturbed by practices hostileto both. ters, the spirit of disobedience and abuse, The accounts of the receipts and expendiwhich manifested itself early, and with tures during the year ending on the 30th sensible effect, while we were unprepar- day of September last, being not yet made ed to meet it, has been considerably re- up, a correct statement will hereafter be pressed. -- Considering the extraordinary transmitted from the treasury. In the meancharacter ot the times, in which we live, time, it is ascertained, that the receipts have our attention should wuremittingly be fix- amounted to near eighteen millions of doled on the safety of our country.

lars, which, wiib the eight millions and a people who are free, and who mean to re- half in the treasury at the beginning of the 111a'n so, a well organized and armed militia year, have enabled us, after meeting the is their best security. It is therefore incum- current demands and interest incurred, to bent on us, at every meeting, to revise the pay two millions three bundred thousand condition of the militia, and to ask ourselves dollars, of the principal of our funded debt, if it is prepared to repel a powerful enemy and left us in the treasury on that day, near at every point of our territories exposed to fourteen millions of dollars ; of these, five invasion. Some of the states have paid a millions three hundred and fifty thousand laudable attention to this object, but every dollars will be necessary to pay what will degree of neglect is to be found among be due on the first day of January next, others. Congress alone having the power which will complete the reimbursement of to produce an uniform state of preparation the eight per cent, stock. These payments, in this great organ of defence, the interests with those made in the six years and a half which they so deeply feel in their own and preceding, will have extinguished thirtytheir country's security, will present this as three millions five hundred and eighty thouamong the most important objects of their sand dollars of the principal of the funded delibc.ation.--Under the acts of March 11, debt, being the whole which could be paid and April 23, respecting arms, the difficulty or purchased within the limits of the law of procuring thein froin abroad, during the and of our contracts; and the amount of present situation and dispositions of Europe, principal thus discharged, will have liberated induced us to direct our whole efforts to the the revenue from about two millions of dolmeans of internal supply; the public lars of interest, and added that sum annually factories have, therefore, been endarged, to the disposable surplus. The probable

For a

accumulation of the surpluses of revenue, founded upon, or in execution of them; beyond what can be applied to the payment and I now take the liberty to renew, in the of the public debt, whenever the freedom mode which I have understood to be indisand safety of our commerce shall be res. pensable, my instances on that subject. I tered, merits the consideration of Congress. need scarcely remind you, Sir, ibat the Shall it be unproductive in the public vaults? government of the United States bas never Shallthe revenue be reduced? Or shullit tot ceased to consider these orders as violating rather be appropriated to the improvement its rights, and attecting most destructively of roads, canals, rivers, education, and its interests, upon grounds wholly inadmisother great foundations of prosperity and sible, both in principle and fact. The leto union, under the powers which Congress ters of Nir. Madison to Mr. Erskine, of may already possess, or such amendment the 20th and 29th of March, 1807, proof the constitution as may be approved by duced by the official communication of the states : while uncertain of the course of that minister of the order of tbe 7th of things, the time may be advantageously em. January, and the answer of Mr. Madison ployed in obtaining the powers necessary for a of the 25th of March, 1808, to a like coidsystem of improvement,should that be thought munication of the orders of the ulth of best. Availing myself ofthis, the last occasion November, containing the most direct rewhich will occur, of addressing the two monstrances against the system which houses of legislature at their meeting, I these orders introduce and execute, and cannot omit ihe expression of my sincere expressed the confident expectation of the gratitude, for the repeated proots of confi- president, that it would not be persisted io. dence manifested to me by themselves and That expectation has not yet been fulfilled, their predecessors, since my call to the ad- but it has, notwithstanding, not been reministration, and the many indulgences linquished. The president is still persuaded experierced at their lands ; the same grate- that its accomplishment will result from a ful acknou ledgments are due to my tellow- careful review, by his majesty's govenment, citizens generally, whose support has been made in the spirit of moderation and equity, my great encouragement under all embar. ' of the facts and considerations which belong rassments. In the transaction of their to the occasion. It is not my purpose to business, I cannot have escaped errormit is recapitulate, in this note, the sentiments incident to our imperfect nature ; but I and reasonings contained in the abovemay say, with truth, my errors have been mentioned letters of Mr. Madison, in sup. of the understanding, not of intention ; port of the claim of the government of and that the advanceirent of their rights and the United States, that the British orders be interests bas been the constant motive for revoked. I content niyself with referring every measure. On these considerations, I to those letters for proofs, which it is not solicit their indulgence. Looking forward necessary to repeat, and for arguments with anxiety to their future destinies, I which I could not hope to improve. But trust, that in their steady character, un- there are explanations which those letters shaken by difficulties, in their love of li- do not contain, and which it is proper for beriy, obedience 10 law, and support of me now to make. Even these, howerer, the public authorities, I see a sure guarantee may be very briefly given, since you bave of the permanence of our republic; and, already been made acquainted in our late retiring from the charge of their atlairs, I conversations, with all their bearings and carry with me the consolation of a firm details. These explanations go to shew, persuasion, that heaven has in store for our that, while every inotive of justice con. beloved country, long ages to come of pros: spires to produce a disposition to recall the perity and bappiness.—THOS. JEFFERSON.- orders, of which my government com. Nov. 8, 1E09.

plains, it is become apparent, that even

their professed object will be best atrained AXERICAN EMBARGO.- Letter from Mr. by their revocation. I had the honour 10

Pinckney, to Mr. Secretaro Cunning. stile to you, Sir, that it was the intention Daird Greut Cumberland Place, Aug. of the president, in case Great Britain re23, 1808.

pealed her orders as regarded the United SIR; -- 1 have had the honour, in conse- States, to exercise the power vested in bir, quence of the orders of the president, to by be act of the last session of Congress, recal your attention, in the course of se- entitled “an act to authorise the president veral iecent interviews, to the British orders of the United States, under certain conin council, of the 7ih January and lith of ditions, to suspend the operation of the act November, 1507, and to the various orders laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and barbours of the United last night, to my note of the 23d of AuStates, and the several acts supplenientary gust.-I regret extremely, that the views thereto," by suspending the embargo law which I have been instructed to lay before and its supplements, as regards Great Bri. this government, have not been met by it, taip. I am authorised to give you this assul- as I had at first been led to expect. The rance in the most formal manner; and, I overture cannot fail, bowever, to place in a trust, that upon impartial inquiry, it will strong light the just and liberal sentiments be found to leave no inducement to perse- by which our government is animated ; and, vere in the British orders, while it dictates in other respects, to be useful and honourthe most powerful inducements of equity able to our own country. and policy to abandon them. On the score Mr Secretary Canning's Letter to Mr. of justice it does not seem possible to mis- Pinckney. Dated Foreign Office, Sept. take the footing upon which this overture 28, 1808. places the subject ; and I venture to believe, The undersigned, his majesty's principal That in any other view there is as little room secretary of state for foreign affairs, had ihe for doubt. If, as I propose, your orders honour to receive the official letter addressshould be rescinded as to the United States, ed to Mr. Pinckney, minister plenipotenand our enbargo rescinded as to Great tiary of the United States, respecting the Britain, the effect of these concurrent acts orders in council issued by his majesty, on the will be, that the commercial intercourse 7th Jan, and 11th Nov. 1807.-He has laid of the two countries will be immediately that letter before the king, and he is com. resumed; while, if France should adhere manded to assure Mr. Pinckney, that the to maxims and conduct derogatory to the answer to the proposal which Mr. Pinckney neutral righis of the United States, the was instructed to bring forward, has been embargo, continuing as to her, will take deferred only in the hope that the renewed the place of your orders, and lead with an appliéation, which was understood to have etlicacy, not merely equal to theirs, but been recently made by the government of probably much greater, to all the conse- the United States to that of France, might, quences that ought to result from them. in the new state of things which has arisen On the other hand, if France should con- in Europe, have met with such a reception cur in respecting those rights, and com- in France, as would have rendered the com-. merce should thus regain its fair immuni- pliance of his majesty with that proposal ties, and the law of nations its just domi- consistent as much with his majesty's owu nions, all the alledged purposes of the Bri- dignity, and with the interests of his people, tish orders will bave been at once fulfilled. as it would have been with his majesty's disIf I forbear to pursue these ideas through position towards the United States. -Unhapall the illustrations of which they are sus- pily there is now no longer any reason to ceptible, it is because the personal confer. believe that such a hope is iikely to be realis

to which I bave before al uded, as ed ; and the undersigned is therefore comwell as the obvious nature of the ideas manded to communicate to Mr. Pinckney themselves, render it unnecessary.

1 ca]

the decision, which, under the circumstannot conclude this note without expressing ces as they stand, his majesty feels himself my sincere wish, that what I have now compelled, however unwillingly, to adopt.--suggested, in conformity with the liberal The mitigated measure of retaliation, ansentiments and enlightened views of the nounced by his majesty in the orders in counpresident, may contribute not only to re- cil of the 7th January, of the further exmove the more immediate obstacles to the tension of that measure (an extension in ordinary intercourse of trade between your operation, but not in principle) by the ore country and mine, in a manner consistent ders in council of November, was founded with the honour of both, but to prepare the (as has been already repeatedly avowed by way for a satisfactory adjustment of every his majesty) on the “ unquestionable right question important to their future friend- of lris majesty to retort upon the enemy the ship.-I have the honour to be, with the evils of his own injustice ;" and upon the highest consideration, Sir,


consideration, that, “if third parties inobedient humble servant, (Signed) WM. cidentally suffered by those retaliatory mea. PINCKNEY.

sures, they were to seek their redress from Extract of a Letter from Mir. Pinckney to the power by whose original aggression The Secretary of State.

Daled London, that retaliation was occasioned."--His ma24th Sept. 1808.

jesty sees nothing in the embargo laid on by I am now able to transmit to you a Copy the president of ihe United States of Ameof Mr. Canning's Answer, received only rica, which varies this original and simple



state of the question.-If considered as a from itself that the trial of such an experimeasure of impartial hostility against both ment might be arduous and long, thougb it belligerents, the embargo appears to his ma- has never doubted of the final issae. Bat if jesty to have been manifestly unjust, as, ac- that issue, such as the British government cording to every principle of justice, that confidently anticipated, has providentially redress ought to have been first sought from arrived much sooner than could have been the party originating the wrong; and his hoped ; if “ the blockade of the continent," majesty cannot consent to buy off that hos- as it has been triumphantly styled by the tility, which America ought not to have enemy, is raised even before it bad been extended to bim, at the expence of a con- well established ; and if that system, of cession, mide not to America, but to which extent and contiouity were the vital France.-If, as it has more generally been principles, is broken up into fragments, represented by the governnient of the Uni- utterly harmless and contemptible, it is ted States, the embargo is only to be con- nevertheless important, in the highest desidered as an innocent municipal regulation, gree, to the reputation of this country (a which affects none but the United States reputation which constitutes great part of themselves, and with which no foreign her power) that this disappointment of the state has any concern ; viewed in this light, hopes of her enemies should not have been his majesty does not conceive that he has the purchased by any concession, nor that a right or the pretension to make any com- doubt should remaju to distant times of ber plaint of it, and he has made none. But in determination, and of her ability, to have ihis light, there appears not only no reci- continued her resistance, and that no step, procity, but no assignable relation between which could even mistakenly be construed the repeal by the United States of a neasure into concession, should be taken on her part, of voluntary self-restriction, and the surren- while the smallest link of the coufederacy der by his majesty of his right of retaliation remains undissolved, or while it can be a against his enemies.—The government of the question, whether the plan devised for her United States is not now to be informed, destruction has or has not either completely that the Berlin decree of November 21, failed, or been unequivocally abandoned. 1806, was the practicai commencement of These considerations compel his majesty to can attempt, not merely to check or impair adhere to the principles on which the orders the prosperity of Great Britain, but utterly in council of the 7th January and the 11tb to annihilate her political existence through November are founded, so long as France the ruin of her coinnercial prosperity ; that adheres to that system by which bis majesty's in this attempt almost all the powers of the retaliatory measures were occasioned an! European continent bave been compelled, justified. It is not improbable, indeed, more or less, to co-operate, and that the that some alterations may be made in the American embargo, though most assuredly

orders in council, as they are at present not intended to that end, (for America can framed ; alterations calculated, not to abate have no real interest in the subversion of the their spirit, or impair their principle, but British power ; and her rulers are too en- to adapt tliem more exactly to the differeat lightened to act from any impulse against state of things which has fortunately grown the real interests of this country): but by up in Europe, and to combine all practicasome unfortunate concurrence of circumstan- ble relief to neutrals, with a more severe ces, without any hostile intention, the Ame- pressure on the enemy.-But of alterations rican embargo did come in aid of the block- to be made with this view only, it would be ade of the European continent, precisely at uncandid to take any advantage in the prethe very moment when, if that blockade sent discussion; however, it might be could have succeeded at all, this interposi- hoped, that, in their practical effect, they tion of the Anierican government would might prove beneficial io Anerica, provided niost effectually have contributed to its suc- the operation of the embargo were not to cess. To this universal combination, his prevent ber from reaping that benefit.-II majesty has opposed a temperate, but a de. remains for the undersigned to take notice termined retaliation upon the enemy, trust- of the last paragraph of Mr. Pinckney's lering that a firm resistance would defeat this ter. There cannot exist, on the part of Mi, project, but knowing that the smallest con- Pinckney, a stronger wish than there dos cession would infallibly encourage a perseve. on that of the undersigned and of the Britisha rance in it. The struggle has been viewed government, for the adjustment of all the by other powers, not without an apprehen- differences subsisting between the two counsion that it might be fatal to this country, tries. His majesty has no other disposition The British government has not disguised than to cultivate the most friendly inter.


course with the United States. The under- restoration of a perfect good anderstanding, signed is persuaded that Mr. Pinckney and that his majesty would decline no mea. would be one of the last to imagine, what sure for the attainment of that object, is often idly asserted, that the depression of which should be compatible with his own any other country is necessary or serviceable honour and just rights, and with the inteto the prosperity of this. The prosperity of rests of his people.The undersigned reAmerica is essentially the prosperity of quests, &c.—(Signed) GEORGE CANNING. Great Britain, and the strength and power of Great Britain are pot for herself only, PORTUGAL. Proclamation by the Intenbut for the world. When those adjustments dant-General of Police of the Court of shall take place, to wliich, though unfor- Justice District at Oporto. tunately not practicable at this moment, Portuguese ! · Where does your furt nor under the conditions prescribed by Mr. transport you? Do you suppose that the Pinckney, the undersigned, nevertheless, English are become French ? No, my dear confidently looks forward, it will perhaps countrymen, the English are not come here be no insecure pledge for the continuance of in the character of conquerors as the Frenchthe good understanding between the two men did; they come to free us from the countries, that they will have learnt duly to slavery that oppressed us. If we deny this appreciate each other's friendship, and that truth, we must be reproached as an ungrateit will not hereafter be imputed to Great ful people. The English did not enter Britain, either, on the one hand, that she Portugal from any motives of ambition ; the envies American industry, as prejudicial 10 motives are

more generous, wise, and British commerce, or, on the other hand, politic; they know very well, that views tbat she is compelled to court an intercourse of aggrandisement always tend to destroy with America, as absolutely necessary to her the equilibrium that forms the fundamental own existence.-His majesty would not he. law of nations. What Great Britain aims sitate to contribute, in any manner in his at, is only the restitution of all countries to power, to restore to the commerce of the their lawful sovereigns. Ah, incomparable United States its wonted activity, and if it George! How great will be thy glory in were possible to make any sacrifice for the future times! Where is the sovereign in repeal of the embargo, without appearing to Europe that does not, at present, owe his depreciate it as a measure of hostility, he crown to thee? Thy name shall for ever would gladly have facilitated its removal, as shine in the Portuguese annals. Excuse, a measure of inconvenient restriction upon then, O mighly king ! the indiscreet zeal the American people. The undersigned is of a people who love their sovereign, and commanded, in conclusion, to observe, whose feelings are partly analogous to thy that nothing is said in Mr. Pinckney's let- views. Remain quiet, then, Oye inhabiter of any intention to repeal the proclama. tants of the most faithful and loyal city in tion by wkich the ships of war of Great Portugal! It is to you, ye inhabitants of Britain are interdicted from all those rights Porto, that I speak, for those honourable of hospitality in the ports of the United epithets are indisputably your right. ConStates, which are freely allowed to the ships sider that the glorious cause which you have of his majesty's enemies. The continuance undertaken, can only be obstructed and reof an interdiction, which, under such cir- tarded by vain and tumultuous mobs. This cumstances, amounts so nearly to direct is what the common enemy wishes for ; and hostility, after the willingness professed, a civil war would only retard their total and the attempt made by his majesty to re- destruction. Let us then unite ourselves to move the cause on which that measure had our faithful allies, the English and the been originally founded, would afford but an Spaniards, in order to overthrow that helinauspicious omen for the commencement lish monster. The union of these three of a system of mutual conciliation : and the pations will scorn all Frencomen's threats, omission of any notice of that measure in the their intrigues and persidy. We shall then proposal which Mr. Pinckney has been in- have the glory of being instrumental in the structed to bring forward, would have been speedy overthrow of the tyrant, in bringiig of itself a material defect in ile overtures about a general peace, and in restoring our of the president.---But the undersigned is august prince to his lawful throne. This commanded no further to dwell upon this is ile just cause that calls aloud for your subject, than for the purpose of assuring Mr. vengeance, and in which you ought to disPinckney, that on this, and every other pray all your courage, your love, and your point in discussion between the two govern. fidelity. Long live Portugai! Long lice meats, bis majesty earnestly desires the Great Britain ! Long live Spain ---J.F.R.G.

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